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1

__ & __ are best learned together as function of a cell tissue or organ

Anatomy & physiology

2

What are the smallest parts of the body?

Atoms

3

__ organise and differentiate together to form a tissue

cells

4

groups of organs work together to form a __

system

5

When you use only the naked eye to study the body and its parts

Gross anatomy

6

Which systems work together to maintain homeostasis?

Endocrine & nervous

7

What are the 11 organ systems?

- skeletal
- muscular
- cardiovascular/circulatory
- integumentary
- digestive
- respiratory
- nervous
- endocrine
- urinary
- reproductive
- lymphatic

8

Smallest unit of structure capable of carrying out all life processes :

Cells
= smallest and most numerous units that make up tissues

9

What do mammalian cells have ? (3)

nucleus
cytoplasm
membrane

10

Particularity of cells?

- Differentiate to perform unique functions
- All cells have the same DNA

11

What are factors essential for cell differentiation?

- cell-cell communication
- growth factors
- ECM composition
- cell location in differentiating embryo

12

What forms the 3 primary germ layers?

Gastrulation

13

What are the primary germ layers?

- endoderm (lung, pancreas, liver, GI tract, UG tract)
- mesoderm (bone, kidney, heart)
- ectoderm (eye, nervous system, skin)

14

Endoderm

Lines digestive and respiratory tracts, parts of liver, pancreas, thyroid, bladder

15

Ectoderm

Integument (skin), lens of the eye and nervous system

16

Mesoderm

Circulatory system, excretory system, muscles, connective tissue, organ

17

What are the 4 major tissue types?

- epithelial
- connective tissue
- muscle
- nervous

18

The EPITHELIAL tissue
- characteristics :
- functions :
- where

- characteristics = 1 or more layers of densely arranged cells with very little ECM

- functions = covers and protect the body surfaces, lines body cavities, movement of substances (secretory)

- found = skin, lining of respiratory tract, digestive tract, urinary, glands of the body

19

The CONNECTIVE tissue
- characteristics :
- functions :
- where

- characteristics = few cells, lots of ECM

- functions = connect anchors and supports body structures, transport. provides structural and metabolic support

- where = bone, tendons, blood, fat

20

What is the ECM made up of?

- fibers in a protein
- polysaccharide matrix
- cells (fibroblasts)

21

What determines the properties of the connective tissue?

The composition of the ECM
ex: if calcified, forms bone or teeth
ex2: specialized forms comprise tendons, cartilage

22

What is the matrix of connective tissue composed of?

- glycoproteins
- fibrous proteins
- glycosoaminoglycans
- collagen (just blood cells)

23

The MUSCLE tissue
- characteristics :
- functions :
- where

- characteristics = long fiberlike cells

- functions = contracts and generates force

- where = heart, skeletal muscle, surrounding hollow organ (bladder, uterus)

24

The NERVOUS tissue
- characteristics :
- functions :
- where

- characteristics = cells specialized for conducting nerve impulses

- functions = initiate and transmit electrical impulses

- where = brain, spinal cord, nerves

25

Different tissues work together for an organ to function, what is an example?

The stomach, composed of smooth muscle, nervous tissue, loose connective tissue, epithelium, connective tissue

26

What is homeostasis?

The maintenance of a relatively constant internal environment. The body adjusts variables to maintain a "set point" in an acceptable or normal range

27

What are the variables regulated in homeostasis?

Temperature
pH
ion concentrations
oxygen
CO2
water
blood glucose

28

What is the chosen source used by our cells?

Glucose

29

What are the components of homeostatic mechanism?

- sensor : detects and reacts to changes
- integrating/ control center : analyzes info
= hypothalamus
- effector mechanism : brings about the change to return to set point
- feedback : process of info about a variable constantly flowing back from the sensor to the integrator

30

Negative feedback

Response opposes or removes the original stimulus, which in turn stops the response loop