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1

The nervous system is composed of

- Central nervous system
- peripheral nervous system

2

CNS

= structural and functional center of entire nervous system
= brain + spinal cord

3

PNS

= cranial, spinal nerves

4

The nervous system is divided according to the types of organs they innervate :

- somatic nervous system
- autonomic nervous system

5

Which system do we have control over?

SNS

6

Which system has no voluntary control over?

ANS

7

somatic nervous system is composed of 2 divisions

afferent : sensory division, info carried to somatic integration center (CNS)
efferent : motor division, info carried to somatic effectors (skeletal muscles)

8

autonomic nervous system is composed of 2 divisions

afferent (incoming): from visceral receptors
efferent (outgoing) : to visceral effectors

9

Efferent (outgoing) division of ANS is divided into

- parasympathetic : "rest-and-repair"
- sympathetic : "fight-or-flight" response

10

Heart rate is controlled by

sympathetic system

11

Stomach is controlled by

parasympathetic system

12

Cells of nervous system

- neurons : conduct impulses
- glial cells : support function of neurons

13

Neurons

- dendrites : receive signals
- axons : carry outgoing info

14

5 types of glial cells

- astrocytes
- Microglia
- oligeodendrocytes
- ependymal cells

15

Astrocytes

Form tight sheets around the brain's capillaries
Helps BBB (blood brain barrier)

16

What can and can't cross BBB?

can : lipid soluble (ethanol, caffeine, oxygen, glucose)
can't : water soluble (sodium, potassium) -> need carrier

17

What can cross BBB and is used to deliver drugs or genetic material into a cell?

Liposome A

18

What are the macrophages of the brain?

microglia

19

Which glial cells :
- are macrophages in the brain, usually stationary except in inflamed tissue

microglia

20

Which glial cells :
- resemble epithelial cells, have glia, allows circulation of fluid

ependymal cells

21

Which glial cells :
- hold nerve cells together and produce myelin sheath

oligodendrocytes

22

Which glial cells :
- form tight sheets around brain's capillaries
- connect neurons to capillaries
- constitute BBB

astrocytes

23

which glial cells make myelin

oligodendrocytes (in CNS)
schwann cells (in PNS)

24

What is a disorder of oligodendrocytes

multiple sclerosis
characterised by loss and destruction of myelin

25

Gaps in myelin sheath

= nodes of Ranvier

26

In PNS which glial cells are present

- schwann cells : support nerve fibres, form myelin sheaths
(satellite cells are a type of schwann cell, don't from myelin sheath)

27

4 functional regions of neuron

- input zone : information received at dendrites and cell body
- summation zone : info summed up at axon hillock
- conduction zone : signal transmitted along axon via voltage gated channels
- output zone : signal given to next axon via synaptic knob

28

What are interneurons

- within central nervous system
- conduct impulses from sensory neurons (afferent) to motor neurons (efferent)

29

The reflex arc

1. sensory receptor send message to CNS (AFFERENT)
2. reaches interneuron
3. interneurons elicits outgoing response from motor neuron (EFFERENT)

30

Bundles of nerve fibres within
- PNS =
- CNS=

- PNS = nerves
- CNS= tracts