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Flashcards in Social and Economic Issues Deck (28):
1

Business Improvement District

area has increased taxes to fund public space improvements to enhance appeal; all benefiting business owners pay

2

Tax Increment Financing

civic improvements to stimulate development are bonded; bond is paid off based on tax increase on properties which are assessed at a higher value after improvements

3

General Obligation Bond

used to fund public projects that receive voter approval; all taxpayers in jurisdiction pay bond through increased property tax

4

Developer Impact Fee

used to fund infrastructure needed to support new developments; generally paid by developer, who looks for areas with lowest fees

5

Debt Service

long-term cost to owner to pay off construction loan; not included in project cost

6

Ad Valorem Tax

based on value of property (latin means "according to value")
may be assessed at time of purchase or annually

7

Amoritization

decreasing or accounting for an amount over a period of time

8

Deed Restriction

limitation on use of property (typically by original developers) that can't be changed by future owners

9

Restrictive Covenant

limitations and stipulations in residential settings related to vegetation, pets, storage...

10

Affirmative Covenant

commits buyer to performing duties, usually maintenance. could be condo fees, etc.

11

Conditional Covenant

a covenant which, if violated, causes property to revert to previous owner or heirs of owner

12

Easement

right to use portion of property without ownership, typically for utilities

13

Right-of-way

right to cross private property to access property

14

Party Wall Agreement

agreement on how to carry out building work on wall shared by 2 owners

15

Blanket Loan

developer uses to purchase land intended fo rsubdividing and resale; each lot is releaed from loan at sale and debt is repaid as part of sale price

16

Bridge Loan

quick loan used to close and start construction while official/long term loan is negotiated

17

Mezzanine Loan

has variable interest rate that gets higher - risky - stock in company is collateral

18

Behaviour Setting

space with definable boundaries and objects where a typical pattern of behaviour occurs at a particular time

19

Proxemics

the study of spatial requirements of humans and the effects of population density on behaviour, communication and social interaction

20

Sociofugal

grouping of people that allows privacy

21

Sociopetal

grouping of people that encourages interaction

22

Density as a net value

people/area when area of streets is excluded

23

Density required for public transit to be effective

30 people/acre (1 person/1,452 sf)

24

Housing Types by increasing density

Detached Single Family
Duplex/Two Family House
Row Houses
Walk-Up (+/- 3 floors)
High Rise

25

5 Housing Patterns

Street Front
End-On
Court
Cluster (open spae common)
PUD (cluster + diversity)

26

4 elements of Defensible Space

Territoriality
Natural Surveillance
Image
Milieu/Environment
OSCAR NEWMAN

27

4 levels of Personal Space

Intimate: 1.5'
Personal: 4'
Social: 12'
Public: 25'
EDWARD HALL

28

Premium

qualification that will add cost to a project - short construction period unusual contract provisions, non-standard program elements or client requirements