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Flashcards in Urban Design Deck (31):
1

GREEK CITY

grid layout with a public center (agora or marketplace) and an irregular wall

2

ROMAN CITY

2 major roads, cardo and decumanus, intersect at central forum
2 kinds, commercial (oppidum) and military (castrum)

3

MEDIEVAL CITY

irregular, geometric streets that roughly radiate from church/marketplace

4

BAROQUE CITY

wide boulevards connect important features
ex: Versailles, Washington, DC, Paris

5

RENAISSANCE CITY

ideal star shape with radial streets; walled; plazas for markets
ex: Florence

6

CITY BEAUTIFUL

1890s-1900s
beautification to create harmonious social order
ex: Columbian Exposition, McMillan Plan for Washington, D.C.

7

6 tenets of Perry's Neighborhood Theory

roads form boundaries of neighborhood
interior streets are cul-de-sacs and traffic-calming
neighborhood size based on one elementary school
school and green space at center
160 acres, 10 families/acre, 1/2 mile from school
10% of space for recreation; include shopping, church, library, community center near edges

8

8 basic types of land use

government
residential
commercial
industrial
natural resources
open/conservation
institutional
agricultural

9

URBAN ORGANIZATIONAL PATTERN: LINEAR

in a line, connected by transportation spine, usually has 2 main points. lacks focus or center; is congested

10

URBAN ORGANIZATIONAL PATTERN: MEGALOPOLIS

extensive linear arrangement of cities

11

URBAN ORGANIZATIONAL PATTERN: AXIAL

similar to linear but with 2 spines

12

URBAN ORGANIZATIONAL PATTERN: RADIAL

center core; inflexible but compact; lots of interaction

13

URBAN ORGANIZATIONAL PATTERN: GRID

flexible, compact, standardized. complex distribution of use; can be boring. very American
Savannah, GA
Philadelphia, PA

14

URBAN ORGANIZATIONAL PATTERN: PRECINCTUAL

dispersed activities; may not have central core. flexible, efficient and economical. expands in any direction

15

URBAN ORGANIZATIONAL PATTERN: CONCENTRIC

core with concentric rings; common pattern is original business center, old housing/factories, dense suburbs, post WWII suburbs

16

URBAN ORGANIZATIONAL PATTERN: MULTIPLE NUCLEI

system of connected sub-centers. variations include finger plan, cluster, and satellite (in satellite, one is the major center)

17

URBAN ORGANIZATIONAL PATTERN: SHEET

extensive urban area without focal point, routes or forms (sprawl)

18

Le Corbusier's 5 Points of Architecture

Pilotis (reinforced concrete stilts)
Free Facade (non-supporting walls designed any way
Open Plan (no structure in the way)
Ribbon Windows (for unencumbered views)
Roof Garden (relocate natural material from footprint of building to roof)

19

5 elements contributing to Lynch's legibility

path: trails, streets, walks
edge: perceived boundary: wall, shoreline
district: city section with identity/character
node: focal point, intersection
landmark: identifiable object; reference point

20

GARDEN CITY

Ebenezer Howard's plan for balance of nature and development - ring of suburbs connected by rail to main city - self-sustaining with agricultural belt
Letchworth, Hertfordshire, England (FIRST)
Welwyn, Hertfordshire, England
Radburn, NJ
Reston, VA

21

NEW URBANISM

1980s-present
America
reform to contain diversity of uses, walkable communities

22

4 factors that make defensible space (Oscar Newman)

territoriality - idea that one's home is sacred
natural surveillance - link between physical characteristics and ability to see
image - physical design imparts sense of security
milieu - other factors - proximity to police or busy area

23

5 principles of designing defensible space (Oscar Newman)

assign resident groups to environments they can utilize and control
define territory to reflect zone of influence - adjacent residents can develop proprietary attitudes
place spaces to allow natural surveillance of public areas
juxtaposition of dwellings, entries and amenities with streets to put the under sphere of influence
building forms that avoid stigma of isolation or vulnerabilit

24

ROAD TYPES: ARTERIAL

connects and expressway to a street serving a residential area
usually 2 lanes each way, controlled by stoplights, sometimes populated by restaurants and shopping

25

ROAD TYPES: EXPRESSWAY

interstate; often accessed by ramps to allow fast, unimpeded movement

26

ROAD TYPES: COLLECTOR-DISTRIBUTER

street serving a residential area; connects to local access roads
may be one lane each direction, parking may be permitted during certain hours, often controlled by stoplights

27

ROAD TYPES: LOCAL ACCESS ROAD

usually one lane each way (may be one-way), controlled by stop signs
may be loops or cl-de-sacs
on-street parking generally unrestricted

28

ROAD TYPES: CARTRIDGE ROAD

loop distributer-collector with access to local road

29

cars per linear foot of curb:
90° parking
60°
45°
30°

90°: 11
60°: 9
45°: 8
30°: 5

30

7 featuresand descriptions of Garnier's Une Cite Industrialle

response to Industrial Revolution
schools/vocational schools close to associated industry
no religion or government - rational man can rule himself
pioneered use of reinforced concrete
innovative building clock with freestanding houses
enormous open spaces - few squares or parks
trees incorporated into important streets

31

catchment area

aka market, trade, or tributary area
geographic area from which participants in an activity are drawn