Social Studies 8, Test, Westward Expansion Flashcards Preview

8th Grade > Social Studies 8, Test, Westward Expansion > Flashcards

Flashcards in Social Studies 8, Test, Westward Expansion Deck (18):

What is The Homestead Act of 1862?

The Homestead Act of 1862 was where the government offered 160 acres of land in the West to help encourage Westward Expansion. In order to get this land, you have to live on it for at least 5 years, be the head of the house or of the age 21 or older, and also had to improve the land in some way such as plowing or things of that nature.


What are Homesteaders?

Homesteaders are people that moved West (during this time period) to farm or take advantage of the Homestead Act. Also sometimes know as Sodbusters as many would often have to break through the sod on the Great Plains.


What is Sod?

Sod is the heavy layer or ground made up of roots and grass.


Who were Exodusters?

Exodusters were Americans who saw opportunity in the Wet and had already moved out of the South as they didn't want to be slaves anymore.


What was the Pacific Railroad Act of 1862

The Pacific Railroad Act act of 1862 was meant to encourage the completion of a railroad going all the way from California to the East Coast. This also enabled the Railroad to fund itself. Before this, the government was funding the project with bonds


What was the Union Pacific Railroad?

The Union Pacific Railroad was one of to railroad companies that wanted to complete a Transcontinental Railroad. The UPR started in Iowa (East) and went to the West. The UPR would eventually meet with the CPR.


What was the Central Pacific Railroad?

The Central Pacific Railroad was one of to railroad companies that wanted to complete a Transcontinental Railroad. They started later than then the UPR. Both companies wanted to get as much track built as possible so they would get more land for each mile. Started in California and built to the East.


What is a Boomtown?

A boomtown is a town that grows rapidly over a short amount of time. Usually cause by gild and silver as the news of gold is spread more and more people move there to attempt to get some of that gold/silver.


What was the Dawes Act?

The Dawes Act gave Americans allotments of land. Many Natives later lost land from this.


What happened in the Battle of Wounded Knee?

The Battle of Wounded Knee was the last war in the Indian Wars. The U.S. military surrounded the camp at Wounded Knee. Troops killed around 150. Many of the innocent were shot at.


What is Desertification?

The process by which deserts are made and/or spread. Over grazing of trampling and people that farm with too much water.


What were the Dangers of the Oregon Trail?

1) Disease
2) Native American attacks
3) Sever weather
4) May get stranded
5) No medical care


What were some conflicts between Miners, Farmers and Ranchers?

- Farmers didn't like miners because they could poison then water or blasted up the land and caused erosion.
- Farmers and Ranchers did not like each other because they both wanted land and therefore each other's land and both of them wanted water for their crops/cattle.
- Ranchers didn't like miners for the same reasons farmers didn't like them.


What are some challenges faced by farmers and cowboys?

- Weather could destroy crops
- Wind, Drouth, hail
- Social Isolation; being alone can cause people to go crazy
- Hard to find wood for housing
- No much or no water for crops
- Falling off horses and being dragged
- Trampled in stampede
- Exposure to elements
- Disease
- Violence


What contributed to the Violence and Lawlessness in western towns?

- Gamblers
- Not a lot of formal law enforcement
- People could compete for money which causes tension-
- Guns were also the problem
- Gamblers and Cowboys had conflicts which added to the problem


What were the ways that the transcontinental railroad aided expansion?

- It was much easier to get to the West safer and faster.
- You could now transport crops and cattle
- Connected many back to some o the luxuries in the East.


What was the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882?

The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 prevented any Chinese from coming int o the country. Chinese hd to pay for housing. The Chinese drove wages down. Many were now paid the same as whites.


What were the negative impacts of westward expansion?

Destroyed lots of fertile land
- Over grazing of cattle destroyed the plains Mining caused pollution
- Over grazing of cattle destroyed the plains
- Ranchers and farmers later lead to desertification
- Got rid of Sod and the native grasses
- Animals got extinct as well