Flashcards in Socio-Cultural Studies Years 1 & 2 Deck (61):
How many social classes were there in pre-industrial Britain?
TWO - Upper and Lower/Working Class
What was the working class profession pedestrianism originated from?
Name two pre-industrial activities available to women.
Hawking (Upper class) and Smock racing (lower class)
Who influenced the laws of society in both pre and post industrial Britain (other than the government)?
Early in the post-industrial era, how long was common for a working shift?
Which social class emerged in post-industrial era?
What types of jobs did the middle class do in the post-industrial era?
Who are the famous factory team who have their origins in a London munitions factory?
Which post-industrial era sports team played matches on Wednesdays?
Name three NGBs which were setup towards the end of the post-industrial era?
The FA 1863, The RFU 1871, The LTA 1888.
What were broken-time payments?
Payments made by owners of sports teams/factory owners for time missed at work due to playing in sporting fixtures.
When was the Education Act that required establishment of the first 'elementary' schools for the general population?
1870 (Forster Act)
When was the Education Act that saw education become free (outside of fee-paying schools)?
Who was the schoolmaster given credit for the development of the cult of athleticism and reforming public school sport?
Dr Thomas Arnold
What movement did he promote?
Provide examples of 2 different rules used in different public schools.
Eton - Against hand use in early football/rugby
Rugby - For hand use in early football/rugby
What year did the RFU split over the issue of professionalism and what sports were created as a result?
Rugby Union and Rugby League - 1895
What year was the Butler Act which stated schools had to focus on physical development?
Name a current British boxer who has gone from 'rags to riches' in the 21st century.
Name a high profile initiative aimed at promoting girls participation in sport.
This Girl Can
Identify 3 ways law and order has become more closely linked to sport in the 21st century.
Negligence and lack of safety/Spectator safety and compulsory seating at matches/Unfair dismissal eg Eva Carneiro/Drug Use and WADA/Discrimination and penalties for racism in sports grounds
Who established the modern olympic games?
Baron Pierre de Coubertin
Where were the 1936 Olympics and what were the main events?
Berlin - Hitler, Nazi Supremacy & Jesse Owens winning Gold medals
Where were the 1968 Olympics and what were the main events?
Mexico City - Black Power Salute, Civil Rights and withdrawals because of Apartheid
Where were the 1972 Olympics and what were the main events?
Munich - Palestinian Terrorism
Where were the 1976 Olympics and what were the main events?
Montreal - Boycotts, Financial Disaster
Where were the 1980 Olympics and what where the main events?
Moscow - USA led boycott due to Soviet Union invasion of Afghanistan
Where were the 1984 Olympics and what were the main events?
Los Angeles - Commercialisation, Soviet-led boycott
What is globalisation?
‘The way in which the world has become more interconnected’.
‘The trading of goods and services across the globe’.
‘It refers to how people communicate as well as world trade, international investment and the sharing of ideas’
What is the golden triangle?
A term to show the interdependence of and relationship between: Media, Sponsorship, Sport.
Identify the sporting benefits of hosting a major sporting event.
- Raises profile of sport
- New facilities
- Focus on minority sport
- Increased funding for elite athletes
- Money to athletes (sponsors)
Identify the sporting drawbacks of hosting a major sporting event.
- Short-termism of benefits
- Ineffective use of facilities and elite focus
- Smaller, non-global sports may suffer
- Loss of funding if performance is poor
Identify the economic benefits of hosting a major sporting event.
- Income – tourism
- Job creation
- Commercial benefits for local businesses
- Income tax increases for the Government following increased profits
Identify the economic drawbacks of hosting a major sporting event.
- Bidding process can be costly
- Event itself can be costly
- Employment benefits may only be short term
- Loss of sponsors/funding (after poor results)
- Money not invested in key services eg. NHS
Identify the social advantages of hosting a major sporting event.
- Money can be used to support local community
- National pride (nation building)
- Legacy of facilities
- Improved transport network
- Better accommodation
- Regeneration of housing and infrastructure
Identify the social drawbacks of hosting a major sporting event.
- Effects not felt outside host city
- Disruption & displacement for locals
- Crime can increase
Identify the political advantages of hosting a major sporting event.
- Gain votes/popularity
- Unity (political differences between countries can be forgotten)
- Shop window – e.g. – Beijing 2008
- Justification of political systems of Government
Identify the political disadvantages of hosting a major sporting event.
- Cost can be seen as foolish
- Terrorism risk increases
- Failure if host city does not do well can be unpopular amongst voters
- Damages environment
- Games can be used for protests/political use
What is 'the development of the cult of athleticism?'
A three stage process that took place in public schools to reform and improve school sport.
What are ethics?
Rules that dictate an individual's conduct. They form a system of rules that groups and societies agree on (Sportsmanship in sport).
What is deviance?
Unacceptable behaviour within a culture. Any behaviour that differs from the perceived social or legal norm.
What is the Lombardian Ethic?
A winning based philosophy on sport. - 'Winning isn't the only thing, it is everything'.
What is match fixing?
When a sports competition is played to a result that is partly or completely pre-determined’.
‘When a player or official is bribed to throw a match’.
Name FOUR examples of technology that supports officiating.
TMO in Rugby, DRS in cricket, Goal-line technology in football, Review system in NFL.
Who are UK Sport?
The organisation responsible for developing elite talent in our country are known as UK SPORT.
What are the 4 phases of UK Sport's talent identification process?
Phase 1: Physical and skills tests eg. sprints, aerobic fitness and strength.
Athlete’s training and competition history are also analysed.
Phases 2 and 3: Further assessment involving physical and medical screening, performance lifestyle workshops & psychological assessments.
Phase 4 (final): Selected athletes must train for 6-12 months being subjected to ongoing continuous assessment.
Name the initiative created in 2016 to identify future olympic and paralympic medal winners.
What is 'discover your power'?
Initially targeted at Cycling, this initiatives aims to identify athletes aged 15-21 with high power, who are competitive and can respond to feedback from elite coaches.
What is UK Sport's 'tall & talented' programme?
UK Sport (2016) attempted to identify tall men and women with exceptional height who possessed the potential to be a successful elite athlete through their ‘Tall and Talented’ campaign.
What are the levels to the World Class Programme?
World Class Podium Programme and World Class Podium Potential Programme
What is the World Class Podium Programme?
Supporting athletes with a realistic medal-winning capabilities at the next Olympic/Paralympic Games
What is the World Class Podium Potential Programme?
For athletes whose performance suggest they have realistic potential to win a medal at the subsequent Olympic and Paralympic Games (maximum of eight years away).
What is funding given for on the World Class Programme?
Coaching, training, medical, technological and scientific services.
Costs are given to Elite athlete's living expenses from who?
The National Lottery
What is a performance pathway?
A performance pathway involves an ongoing review of the support athletes get with the goal of improving the overall route to elite development.
As part of a performance pathway, what is a performance health check?
A benchmarking process which considers:
An athlete’s progress, fitness levels, transition rates between junior and senior levels, retention rates, the curriculum received by the athlete.
What is the Athlete Performance Award?
Funded through the National Lottery.....it helps athletes fund their living and personal sporting costs where there is the greatest financial need.
There is a maximum income of £65,000 (including the APA).
Athletes on podium level funding can receive a maximum of £28,000 per year.
What is a National Institute of Sport?
Each country in the UK has a National Institute of Sport which work to promote and develop Sports Science, Medicine & Technology.
The National Institutes and Performance Directors to help improve the performance of their athletes through a dedicated team of sports scientists.
This is done through optimising training programmes, maximising performance levels and improving health/availability to train.
Identify the location of an English Institute of Sport.
Loughborough University, Sport City Manchester, Lilleshall, University College Wales.....
Identify six potential stressors which can cause potential elite athlete drop-out?
- Family commitments
- Lack of finance