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Flashcards in Sows Deck (28)
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1

How long is a sow’s oestrus cycle?

21d

2

How long is the pig production cycle? How does it breakdown?

21wks

Weaning to service = 1wk
Gestation = 16wk
Farrowing to weaning = 4wk

3

What are some Sx of heat in the sow?

Swelling & reddening of the vulva
Vocalisation
Interest in the boar
Standing heat

4

What sort of semen in used in pig AI?

Fresh

5

How is PD performed on sows and at what stage of gestation?

Trans-abdominally

1st scan = 4wk
2nd scan = 6-7wks

6

How long is a sow’s gestation?

16wks

7

What is the main production measure for breeding pig units?

No. piglets born alive / sow / yr

8

What two figures contribute to piglets born alive/sow/yr?

Farrowing index = no. litters / sow / yr

Born alive / sow

9

What is the maximum farrowing index for a sow? Why?

= 52 litters / sow / year

Based on production cycle of 21wks

52/21 = 2.476

10

Three main problems occur in breeding units – what are they?

1. Problem with conception
2. Problem with reduced litter size
3. Problem with low production

11

Why might a unit have increased return to service? How can you tell if conception is the main problem or if it is early embryo loss?

Increased return to service = poor quality or timing of service, boar problem, disruption to implantation, infection, abortions

Regular return to service - multiples of 21d --> indicates either failure of fertilisation OR early loss of embryo

Irregular return to service - 'out of sync' --> indicates sow was served BUT either sow wasn't in heat, abortion, disruption to implantation OR infection

12

What can cause decreased litter sizes?

a. Issue with ovulation --> genetics, nutrition, parity
b. Issue with fertilisation --> poor service timing or quality, boar problem, nutrition, stress
c. abortion

13

What is the avg. weight of a gilt?

200kg

14

What is MMA syndrome?

Mastitis, metritis and agalctia

15

What can influence farrowing index?

Conception rate
Final farrowing rate
Weaning to service interval
Weaning to conception interval

16

What can influence the no. piglets born alive?

Point of ovulation
Point of fertilisation
Implantation
Maintenance of pregnancy
Survival through farrowing

17

What are some Sx of farrowing?

Nesting behaviour
Decreased appeitite
Milk beads

18

What is the main cause of dystocia in pigs?

Inertia

19

What are the two types of inertia causing dystocia?

Primary = over conditioned, lack of muscle tone, HypoCa, concurrent illness

Secondary = exhaustion, prolonged obstruction

20

Once dystocia has been correct / farrowing has taken place, what should be given to the sow?

Oxytocin
Penicillin
NSAID
Ca if been straining for ++ time
PGF2a if retained membranes

21

What is the indication for Caesarian section?

If totally unresponsive to inertia or obstruction

22

How much colostrum do piglets require within first 6hrs?

Two feeds

23

What is the most common presentation of MMA syndrome?

Agalactia

24

How is MMA syndrome Tx?

Anti-inflams, oxytocin, pen & strep

25

In which pigs is savaging of piglets most common and why?

Overconditioned gilts

More condition = more fat around pelvic canal = more pain

26

There are 5 routine piglet procedures – what are they?

1. IM Fe depo injection
2. Tail docking
3. Teeth clipping
4. Tagging, notching etc
5. Routine vacs

27

Why do piglets have their tail’s docked?

The ends of their tails have no innervation --> dock end of tail to take it to a level of sensation --> less problems with tail biting

28

How and why do piglets have their teeth clipped?

To prevent teat lesions - use of a burr to take off the sharp tip