Flashcards in Sows Deck (28)
How long is a sow’s oestrus cycle?
How long is the pig production cycle? How does it breakdown?
Weaning to service = 1wk
Gestation = 16wk
Farrowing to weaning = 4wk
What are some Sx of heat in the sow?
Swelling & reddening of the vulva
Interest in the boar
What sort of semen in used in pig AI?
How is PD performed on sows and at what stage of gestation?
1st scan = 4wk
2nd scan = 6-7wks
How long is a sow’s gestation?
What is the main production measure for breeding pig units?
No. piglets born alive / sow / yr
What two figures contribute to piglets born alive/sow/yr?
Farrowing index = no. litters / sow / yr
Born alive / sow
What is the maximum farrowing index for a sow? Why?
= 52 litters / sow / year
Based on production cycle of 21wks
52/21 = 2.476
Three main problems occur in breeding units – what are they?
1. Problem with conception
2. Problem with reduced litter size
3. Problem with low production
Why might a unit have increased return to service? How can you tell if conception is the main problem or if it is early embryo loss?
Increased return to service = poor quality or timing of service, boar problem, disruption to implantation, infection, abortions
Regular return to service - multiples of 21d --> indicates either failure of fertilisation OR early loss of embryo
Irregular return to service - 'out of sync' --> indicates sow was served BUT either sow wasn't in heat, abortion, disruption to implantation OR infection
What can cause decreased litter sizes?
a. Issue with ovulation --> genetics, nutrition, parity
b. Issue with fertilisation --> poor service timing or quality, boar problem, nutrition, stress
What is the avg. weight of a gilt?
What is MMA syndrome?
Mastitis, metritis and agalctia
What can influence farrowing index?
Final farrowing rate
Weaning to service interval
Weaning to conception interval
What can influence the no. piglets born alive?
Point of ovulation
Point of fertilisation
Maintenance of pregnancy
Survival through farrowing
What are some Sx of farrowing?
What is the main cause of dystocia in pigs?
What are the two types of inertia causing dystocia?
Primary = over conditioned, lack of muscle tone, HypoCa, concurrent illness
Secondary = exhaustion, prolonged obstruction
Once dystocia has been correct / farrowing has taken place, what should be given to the sow?
Ca if been straining for ++ time
PGF2a if retained membranes
What is the indication for Caesarian section?
If totally unresponsive to inertia or obstruction
How much colostrum do piglets require within first 6hrs?
What is the most common presentation of MMA syndrome?
How is MMA syndrome Tx?
Anti-inflams, oxytocin, pen & strep
In which pigs is savaging of piglets most common and why?
More condition = more fat around pelvic canal = more pain
There are 5 routine piglet procedures – what are they?
1. IM Fe depo injection
2. Tail docking
3. Teeth clipping
4. Tagging, notching etc
5. Routine vacs
Why do piglets have their tail’s docked?
The ends of their tails have no innervation --> dock end of tail to take it to a level of sensation --> less problems with tail biting