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Flashcards in Special Test Deck (43)
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Trendelenburg's Sign

Positive Findings: A positive test of Trendelenburg's sign is when the hip of your non-weight bearing leg drops or is lower than the other side.

Interpretation: Your uneven hips indicate that the hip abductors, Gluteus Minimus/Medius, on your weight bearing leg are weak and cannot stabilize your pelvis


Craig's Test

Positive Findings: Normal Hip Anteversion is 8-15 degrees (8-15 degrees of medial rotation is normal)

Interpretation:Individuals with abnormal anterversion (or retroversion) angles of the femur are more susceptible to femoral acetabular impingement, and thus, labral damage. The position of the femoral head also affects the individual's gait. Individuals with hip dyplasia have an abnormally high amount of anteversion and must medially rotate the hips in order to improve the movement arms of the hip abductors for gait. The appearance results with a gait pattern with the toes pointed inward (some individuals will try to compensate for the in-toeing by laterally rotating the knee).


Scouring Test

Positive Findings: Any pain, crepitus, apprehension, or unusual movement is a positive sign.

Interpretation: Examiner must document where in the ROM a positive sign is indicated to determine specific pathology of the hip.


Anterior Labral Tear Test

Positive Findings: A positive test is indicated by the production of pain, the reproduction of the pt's. symptoms with or without a click, or apprehension.

Interpretation: The test places the greatest strain on the anterolateral labrum, and the examiner should be careful to equate any findings with the pt's. symptoms


Posterior Labral Tear Test

Positive Findings: A positive test is indicated by the production of groin pain, pt. apprehension, or the reproduction of the pt's. symptoms with or without a click.

Interpretation: A positive test is an indication of a labral tear, anterior hip instability, or posterior-inferior impingement.


Leg Length Discrepancy

Long Sitting-Lying
Long Sitting-Sitting
Functional Leg Length
True Leg Length


Varus Stress Test

Positive Findings: Positive test implies instability.

Interpretation: Laxity on Varus stress suggest knee LCL tear.


Valgus Stress Test

Positive Findings: Positive Test implies instability.

Interpretation: Laxity on Valgus stress suggest knee MCL tear.


Anterior Drawer Test (ACL)
Solcum Drawer Test Internal Rotation
Solcum Drawer Test External Rotation
Lachman's Test

Positive Findings: A "mushy" or soft end feel during the anterior force, excessive anterior translation of the tibia on the femur whem compared bilaterally.

Interpretation: There may be an anterior cruciate ligament injury, a posterior oblique ligament injury or an arcurate-poplitues complex injury.


Pivot Shift Test

Positive Findings: A clunk or clicking occurs as the knee is flexed and anteriorly subluxes during extension. The pt. may also describe the feeling as "giving way".

Interpretation: A positive finding may indicate injury to the anterior cruciate ligament, the posterolateral capsule, the acruate-poplitues complex, the lateral collateral ligament, or the ITB.


Sag Test
Posterior Drawer Test

Positive Findings: Posterior subluxation of the tibia on the Femur.

Interpretation: PCL Tear


Reverse Lachman's Test

Positive Findings: laxity and excessive posterior translation of the tibia.

Interpretation: PCL Tear


McMurray's Test

Positive Findings: A snap or click in conjunction with pain.

Interpretation: Loose fragments of lateral or medial meniscus (tear).


Apply's Compression/Distraction Test

Positive Findings: Any restriction, excessive movement, discomfort and reproduction of symptoms.

Interpretation: If distraction is painful towards the rotation on the normal side, lesion is probably ligamentous.
If compression is painful of shows decreased rotation on the normal side, the lesion is probably meniscus.


"Bounce Home" Test

Positive Findings: If extension is not complete or has a rubbery end feel. Pt. may also feel sharp pain in the joint line radiated up or down the leg.

Interpretation: Meniscus Lesion


Ege's Test

Positive Findings: The test is positive when pain and/or a click is felt by the pt. at the related site of the joint line. Further squatting is stopped as soon as the pain and/or click is felt. Pain and/or click are typically felt at around 90* o knee flexion.

Interpretation: Possible meniscus tear on medial or lateral side.


Thessaly's Test

Positive Findings: Pt's. with suspected meniscal tears experience medial or lateral joint-line discomfort and may have a sense of locking or catching. The theory behind the test is that, with this maneuver, the knee with a meniscal tear is subjected to excessive loading conditions and almost certainly will have the same symptoms that the pt. reported.

Interpretation: Meniscal tear


Wilson's Test

Positive Findings: If the pt. reports pain in the knee about 30* from full extension and when by rotating the foot back (externally rotation of the tibia) in its normal position the pain disappears.

Interpretation: A positive test could allude to Osteochondritis Dissecans (OCD).


Noble's Compression Test

Positive Findings: At approximately 30* of flexion (0 degrees being straight leg), the pt. experiences severe pain over the lateral femoral condyle. Pt. states that it is the same pain that occurs with activity.

Interpretation: A positive test could allude to snapping knee of ITBS.


Plica Stutter Test

Positive Findings: The patella stutters or jumps somewhere between 60 and 45 degrees of the flexion during an otherwise smooth movement



Patellofemoral Joint Test:

Ballotable Patella Test
Clarke's Sign

Indication: A noticeable amount of joint effusion is considered a positive sign.



Positive Findings: Stroke/Brush/Buldge - The wave of fluid may take up to 2 seconds to appear. Normally, the knee contains 1 to 7 mL of synovial fluid. This test shows as little as 4 to 8 mL of EXTRA fluid withing the knee


Ballotable Patella Test

Positive Findings: Ballotable Patella - When this is done a floating of the patella should be felt.


Clarke's Sign

Positive Findings: Clarke's Sign - If the patient can complete and maintain the contraction without pain, the test is considered negative. If the test causes retropatellar pain and the pt. cannot hold a contraction, the test is considered positive.


Patella Apprehension

Positive Findings: A positive test consist of orally expressed apprehension or a apprehensive quadriceps recruitment on the provocation test.

Interpretation: Patellar subluxation of dislocation



Normally the Q-Angle is 13 degrees of males and 18 degrees for female. Abnormal is less than 13 degrees or greater than 18 degrees. A Q-Angle less than 13 is associated with chondromalacia patella or subluxed patella.


Thump Test

Positive Findings: Reproduction of the pt's. worst pain.


Squeeze Test of Leg

Positive Findings: If the pt. experiences pain in the area of the syndesmosis. (Think this can also be done for a fracture?)


Figure 8 Measurement

Positive Findings: If there is a difference in measurements between both ankles.

Interpretation: Joint effusion.


Thompson's Sign

Positive Findings: The absence of plantar flexion when the muscle is squeezed.

Interpretation: Ruptured Achillies Tendon