Flashcards in Spinal Cord Injury (Exam 4) Deck (28):
Injury typically trauma from outside force that causes stretching, bruising, lacerations, compression.
Spinal Cord Injury
Primary damage is mechanical injury to _____.
Secondary damage is injury to ______ and _____.
Biochemical and Histological Changes.
Typical patients are _____.
Young Caucasian Men.
Causes of Spinal Cord Injuries
MVA, Falls, Violence (Gunshot wounds, Stabbings)
Mortality rates higher in the ____ year.
Partial or complete preservation of motor function, sensory function or both in the S4-S5 spinal segments, anal sensation, voluntary contraction of the external anal sphincter indicate sensory and motor incomplete injury.
May occur with complete injury. Most caudal segment with some sensory of motor function. Random sensation lower than the level of injury.
Zone of Partial Preservation (ZPP)
Motor level of injury is determined by last nerve root that innervates key muscles a ___ strength. Providing that the muscles innervated about are normal 5 strength.
3+ (Fair +)
Sensory level of injury determined by last nerve root at which sensation is _____.
Four extremities involved. Formerly quadriplegia. Any level from C8 and above, including any UE.
Begins at TI, UE not effected. Includes any LE.
Spasticity, hypertonicity, pathologic reflexes.
Flaccidity, atrophy, absence of reflexes.
Hemi-section of spinal cord. Pure injury is rare. Contralateral loss pain and temperature sensations. Ipsilateral loss proprioception. Ipsilateral spastic motor paralysis below level of injury.
Primarily seen in older people with cervical spondylosis. Hyperextension injuries. UEs > LEs because of location of tracts.
Central Cord Syndrome
Anterior portion spinal cord damaged more than posterior portion. More dorsal tracts (proprioception) spared. More anterior tracts (motor) more affected.
Anterior Cord Syndrome
Injury to L5 nerve roots within neural canal. Peripheral nerve injury/ LMNL. Areflexic motor injury.
Cauda Equina Syndrome
Total body sympathetic nervous system response to noxious stimuli, which may be see in T6 and above. Medical emergency, remove noxious stimuli.
Autonomic Dysreflexia (AD)
Mechanical instability, inflammation, muscle spasm overuse of muscles and joints, dull, aching, movement-related, shoulder and wrist common.
Sharp, stabbing, buring, or electrical pain associated with painful, hypersensitive response to normally non-noxious stimuli.
Pooling of blood in legs and abdomen.
Abnormal overgrowth of bone in joint space or around joint. Usually occurs 3 months of injury and associated with spasticity. Hip most affected.
Heterotopic Ossification (HO)
Declines significantly during first 3 months and reaches loss of about 37% by 16 months.
Decrease Bone Mineral Density
Is characterized by a period of flaccidity, areflexia, loss of bowel and bladder function, and autonomic deficits including decreased arterial blood pressure and poor temperature regulation below the level of injury. Normally lasts 24-48 hours.
Necrosis secondary to obstructed blood flow such as embolus or thrombus.
Infarct to Spinal Cord