Traumatic Brain Injury (Exam 4) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Traumatic Brain Injury (Exam 4) Deck (47):
1

TBI is the #1 killer of ____ and ____.

Children and Young Adults.

2

____ twice as often as ____.

Men, Women

3

Typical patient is ____ to ___ years of age.

15-24 years of age.

4

75 years of age usually due to ____.

Falls

5

_____ is the only cure for head injury.

Prevention

6

Include skull fractures and open wounds.

Open Head Injuries

7

Skull remains intact such as concussion, contusion, and hematomas.

Close Head Injuries

8

Assessment of level of arousal and brain function.

Glasgow Coma Scale

9

Most commonly lobes injured.

Parietal, Frontal Lobes

10

Spatial Relations

Parietal

11

Judgement, Reasoning

Frontal

12

Factors Influencing Outcomes

Premorbid Status, Primary Damage.

13

Includes clots, contusions, lacerations, or combo. Under site of impact.

Local Brain Damage

14

Coup-Countrecoup

Polar Brain Damage

15

Diffuse Axonal Injury

Diffuse Brain Injury

16

Momentary loss of consciousness, reflexes. Possible amnesia. No structural damage to brain but a disruption of synapses.

Concussion

17

Bruising of the surface of brain. Hemorrhage of small blood vessels. Local injury.

Contusion

18

Damage to brain directly under site of impact and directly opposite.

Coup-Countercoup Injury

19

Widely scattered shearing of subcortical axons.

Diffuse Brain Injury

20

Lack or absence of oxygen.

Hypoxic Ischemic Injury

21

Compress of brain due to expanding hematoma.

Intracranial Hematomas

22

Between dura mater and skull. Forms rapidly, common with blow to head. Requires craniotomy (evacuation) of hematoma.

Epidural Hematoma

23

Between dura and arachnoid mater. Usually forms over several hours or a week. Common in elderly after a fall, mimics CVA. Small hematomas can be reabsorbed.

Subdural Hematoma

24

Hematoma within the main part of the brain.

Intra-Cerebral Hematoma

25

_____ which normally occurs in the first week, but may occur weeks or months after the initial incident.

ICP (Increased Cranial Pressure)

26

Surge of levels of excitatory neurotransmitters starts a cascade of events that destroys neurons.

Auto destructive Cellular Phenomonon

27

Glasgow Coma Scale 8 or less.

Severe brain injuries and coma.

28

Glasgow Coma Scale 9-12.

Moderate brain injuries.

29

Glasgow Coma Scale 13-15.

Mild brain injuries.

30

Outline of predictable sequence of cognitive and behavioral recovery from TBI.

Rancho Los Amigos Level of Cognitive Functioning (RLA)

31

Prevents the skin breakdown

Positioning

32

Best positions

Side-lying or semi-prone. Abduction/ER of the shoulder is preferred to inhibit abnormal muscle tone.

33

Prevent joint contractures

ROM

34

Functional mobility training when patient status is ____.

Stable

35

Returning surviving patient to highest possible level of function.

Primary Goals of Rehab for TBI

36

No eye opening, doesn't follow commands, no speech.

Coma

37

Decreased level of awareness, eye opening, sleep-wake cycles.

Persistent Vegetative State

38

No short-term memory.

Post-traumatic Amnesia

39

___ is the most socially disabling and enduring problem with a TBI.

Behavioral Deficits

40

Flexion of the arms, clenched fists, extended legs, arms bent inward toward the body with wrist/fingers bent and held on the chest.

Decorticate Posture

41

Arm, legs extended, toes pointed downward, head and neck arched backwards.

Decerebrate Posture

42

Common injuries often present with TBI.

Open wounds, fractures, SCI, soft tissue injury, internal organ injury, peripheral nerve damage.

43

Velocity of Injury (MVA).

High

44

Velocity of Injury (Fall).

Low

45

Focal Brain Injury

Located in one place.

46

Diffuse Brain Injury

Widely scattered.

47

Damage to the poles of the brain from sudden acceleration/deceleration.

Polar Brain Damage