Flashcards in Sponges and Radiate animals Deck (55):
Level of organization
Spongeshave what type of symmetry?
What are the four main classes of Porifera
Homoscleromorpha, Calcarea, Demsponglae, Hexactinlidia
Porifera special feature?
they have Spicules
What are the three body forms
Asconoid, Syconoid, Leuconoid
What is the most simple body form
Choanocytes is what
Asconoid's have flagellated...
Has spongocoel NOT lined with choanocytes
Syconoids have flagellated...
Has no spongocoel
The most complex body form and have flagellated..
Organized in gelatinous extracellular matrix:
What type of cell
ovoid cells that line canal systems and chambers
exposed end, a collar forming a filtering device
flagellar motion pulls water through filter
Archeocytes are involved in what?
True epithelium is found where
cell layer boardering a free space, cell junctions, sits on a basement membrane of extracellular matrix.
-What coordinates contraction of bands of myocytes around opens- lack nervous system
-protective and contractile (myocytes)
Sponges non-selectively consume food particles sized between ...
0.1 μm and 50 μm
The smallest particles are taken into choanocytes by whereas Protein molecules may be taken in by
Can intracellular or Intercellular cells digest food
The process of being able to regenerate individuals from fragments
Are Archaeacytes totipotent
Most sponges are Monoecious, what does this mean
both make and female cells
Most sponges are viviparous , what is that process
development of embryo within the parent ---- makes a ciliated larva
(parenchyma is the most common type)
What degree symmetry do radiate animals have?
Phylum Cnidaria (nettle like) are
Diploblastic with epidermis (ectoderm) and gastrodermis (gut) (endoderm).
What is the specialized stinging organelle in Cnidaria called
What are the four main classes in the Phylum Cnidaria
Anthozoa, Scphozoa, Cubozoa, Hydrozoa
Phylum Cnidaria have what symmetry
Radial or biradial – but lack bilateral equalization
What has the two body types of medusa or polyps
lack mesoderm AKA
Which phylum has the following:
Lack a coelom
Incomplete gut: gastrovascular cavity- blind ended gut, mouth acts as both
No excretory or respiratory system
Medusa is what
Bell or umbrella‑shaped
Mouth directed downward
Statocysts and ocelli present
Scyphomedusa: no velum
Hydromedusa: has velum
Polyp (Hydroid) has what characteristics
-Aboral end attached to substratum by pedal disc
-Reproduce asexually by budding, fission, or pedal laceration
-Hydrozoa- bud formation, forms tentacles, can remain attached if so forms a colony, if detach then form a separate individual
For a mutualistic Hydrozoan colony what is being exchanged? (Eg, crabs)
Mutualistic hydrozoan colony on hermit crab shell, crab gains protection and camo
Hydrozoa gains colony, mobility and food scraps
'naked' polyps without mouth
reproductive 'naked' polyps
Gonozooid (gonangium) polyps
What is a Free swimming polymorphic colonial forms
feeding polyps with mouth and tentacles for prey capture
Gastrozooid (hydranths) polyps
Nematocyte (stinging organelle)
abundant on tentacles
discharge stimulated by chemical and/or physical contact. One shot and then recycled.
Discharged cnidae can specialize for 4 things what are they
1. wrapping around small objects*
2. sticking to surfaces*
3. penetrating surfaces
4. secreting toxins
Are typically carnivores
Corals supplement their nutrition with carbohydrates collected from what
Can Cnidae reproduced sexually, Asexually or both
The nervous system processes synapse or junction with
1. (neuro)sensory cells
2. epitheliomuscular cells
3. nutritive-muscular cells
Sensory is contained within what structure?
rhopalium - “sense organ” (in scyphoid medusa)
What controls balance?
Ocelli do what?
Impacts on jellyfish and corals
Predation, humans, coral bleaching, global warming and Ocean acidification
Which statement(s) about BOTH poriferans and cnidarians is (are) correct?
Both belong to monophyletic groups.
The series Asconoid-Syconoid-Leuconoid in sponges represents a
increasing size and complexity of body forms.
Formed and used only by Cnidaria although a few other organisms may "steal" them
Cnidarian dimorphism refers to
medusa and polyp body types.