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Flashcards in Sponges and Radiate animals Deck (55):
1

Level of organization

Cellular

2

Spongeshave what type of symmetry?

Asymmetrical

3

What are the four main classes of Porifera

Homoscleromorpha, Calcarea, Demsponglae, Hexactinlidia

4

Porifera special feature?

they have Spicules

5

What are the three body forms

Asconoid, Syconoid, Leuconoid

6

What is the most simple body form

Asconoid's

7

Choanocytes is what

collar cells

8

Asconoid's have flagellated...

Spongocoels

9

Has spongocoel NOT lined with choanocytes

Syconoids

10

Syconoids have flagellated...

Canals

11

Has no spongocoel

Leuconoids

12

The most complex body form and have flagellated..

Leuconoids

13

Organized in gelatinous extracellular matrix:

Mesohyl

14

What type of cell
ovoid cells that line canal systems and chambers
exposed end, a collar forming a filtering device
flagellar motion pulls water through filter

Choanocytes

15

Archeocytes are involved in what?

Nutrition

16

True epithelium is found where

cell layer boardering a free space, cell junctions, sits on a basement membrane of extracellular matrix.

17

-What coordinates contraction of bands of myocytes around opens- lack nervous system
-protective and contractile (myocytes)

Pinacocytes:

18

Sponges non-selectively consume food particles sized between ...

0.1 μm and 50 μm

19

The smallest particles are taken into choanocytes by whereas Protein molecules may be taken in by

phagocytosis
pinocytosis

20

Can intracellular or Intercellular cells digest food

Intracellular

21

The process of being able to regenerate individuals from fragments

Somatic embryogenesis

22

Are Archaeacytes totipotent

Yes

23

Most sponges are Monoecious, what does this mean

both make and female cells

24

Most sponges are viviparous , what is that process

development of embryo within the parent ---- makes a ciliated larva
(parenchyma is the most common type)

25

What degree symmetry do radiate animals have?

360

26

Phylum Cnidaria (nettle like) are

Diploblastic with epidermis (ectoderm) and gastrodermis (gut) (endoderm).

27

What is the specialized stinging organelle in Cnidaria called

the nematocyst

28

What are the four main classes in the Phylum Cnidaria

Anthozoa, Scphozoa, Cubozoa, Hydrozoa

29

Phylum Cnidaria have what symmetry

Radial or biradial – but lack bilateral equalization

30

What has the two body types of medusa or polyps

Phylum Cnidaria

31

lack mesoderm AKA

Diploblastic

32

Which phylum has the following:
Lack a coelom
Incomplete gut: gastrovascular cavity- blind ended gut, mouth acts as both
Tentacles
Nerve net-
Sense organs:
No excretory or respiratory system

Phylum Cnidaria

33

Medusa is what

Jellyfish

34

Bell or umbrella‑shaped
Usually free-swimming
Mouth directed downward
Tetramerous symetry
Statocysts and ocelli present
Scyphomedusa: no velum
Hydromedusa: has velum

Medusa

35

Polyp (Hydroid) has what characteristics

-Tubular body
-Aboral end attached to substratum by pedal disc
-Reproduce asexually by budding, fission, or pedal laceration
-Hydrozoa- bud formation, forms tentacles, can remain attached if so forms a colony, if detach then form a separate individual

36

For a mutualistic Hydrozoan colony what is being exchanged? (Eg, crabs)

Mutualistic hydrozoan colony on hermit crab shell, crab gains protection and camo
Hydrozoa gains colony, mobility and food scraps

37

'naked' polyps without mouth

Dactylozooid polyps

38

reproductive 'naked' polyps

Gonozooid (gonangium) polyps

39

What is a Free swimming polymorphic colonial forms

Physalia physalis

40

feeding polyps with mouth and tentacles for prey capture

Gastrozooid (hydranths) polyps

41

What has
Nematocyte (stinging organelle)
abundant on tentacles
discharge stimulated by chemical and/or physical contact. One shot and then recycled.

Cnidae

42

Discharged cnidae can specialize for 4 things what are they

1. wrapping around small objects*

2. sticking to surfaces*
(*spirocysts/ptychocysts)
3. penetrating surfaces

4. secreting toxins
(nematocysts)

43

Are typically carnivores

Cnidae

44

Corals supplement their nutrition with carbohydrates collected from what

algal symbionts

45

Can Cnidae reproduced sexually, Asexually or both

Both

46

The nervous system processes synapse or junction with

1. (neuro)sensory cells
2. epitheliomuscular cells
3. nutritive-muscular cells
4. Nematocytes

47

Sensory is contained within what structure?

rhopalium - “sense organ” (in scyphoid medusa)

48

What controls balance?

Statocysts

49

Ocelli do what?

light receptors

50

Impacts on jellyfish and corals

Predation, humans, coral bleaching, global warming and Ocean acidification

51

Which statement(s) about BOTH poriferans and cnidarians is (are) correct?

Both belong to monophyletic groups.

52

The series Asconoid-Syconoid-Leuconoid in sponges represents a

increasing size and complexity of body forms.

53

Nematocysts are


Formed and used only by Cnidaria although a few other organisms may "steal" them

54

Cnidarian dimorphism refers to

medusa and polyp body types.

55

Colonial polyps share nutritional resources between individual polyps

via a continuous gastrovascular cavity.