Flashcards in Sport and Exercise Psyc Deck (35):
What is the tomato effect?
A term used to describe a phenomenon where highly effective therapy is ignored or rejected
-something really good for you but you don't do it (eg. PA)
What does the tomato effect occur?
The therapy doesn't seem to make sense in terms of common beliefs
-ppl ignore the evidence
Why does our society not engage in PA even though it is so good for you?
We live in a sedentary society
-a lot of time its in the mind
-if you're lifting weights at the gym so, you
1. start to think weights are getting heavier
2. technique goes down
3. start to lose focus
4. mind fails before the body almost everytime
mind is always the first obstacle to get over
What are the benefits of exercise?
--body density and bone
(really young: children running and jumping is good for bone density)
--strength and endurance
-stroke volume and output
-heart rate and BP
THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
THE METABOLIC SYSTEM
What are the basic requirements for adults of PA?
30m or more of moderate-vig intensity activity performed on most days of the week
-benefits are related to effort
Are ppl aware of the benefits of exercise?
-Surveyed active and inactive ppl's knowledge and beliefs about PA
-in most instances, inactive ppl held similar beliefs to active indiv. about the benefits of PA
-that's why the tomato effect is so interesting
What type of measurements are made when studying PA?
1. specify which aspects of PA are important in producing specific health outcomes
2. monitor changes in PA over time
3. monitor the effectiveness of an intervention
4. determine pop guidelines for PA
When researchers used an accelerometer what was found?
wanted to find the bare min. of PA
-now has 24hr guidelines
sleep is included too
-ppl who were relatively active- at least 60min a day
-had better mood states
-diets in simple sugar/carb
lead to imbalanced mood states and sleeping patters
When researchers wanted to predict motivation for exercise and used 2 groups (fit and NF) what did they do?
had them stand on a line and look down to the end of the track
asked them to predict the distance of the finish line
motivacted: predictec the distance to be 40% shorter than the other
RIGHT away: the mind
next thing: took objective measurements: predicted VO2(beep test) BMI test
BMI: ppl with a low waist to hip ratio were less motivated
measured motivation: they found that regardless of WtoH ratio and VO2
-ppl who were motivated saw it 40% less regardless of weight
SO what is it that helps people be motivated?
had ppl focus on finish line- removed background noise
found that focusing in on finish line regardless of motivation and fitness helped perceive to be 35% closer
then put on weights- with weights if just focused on finish line
complete the task faster and with more weight
comes down to the perception
What do we need more and less of for research on personality and PA?
-less research on personality and the predisposition to exercise
-more research on how exercise may change personality
-look at building programs for ppl with at risk personalities
What parts of 'self' go into global SE?
1. Physical self
2. Academic self
3. Social self
What is global SE?
how we value and what we value will influence all of these things
If you continue to be active, social and brain power, you're going to be a more rounded indiv. you will start to depend too much on one or the other
Does PA automatically enhance SE?
no- it contributes but isn't cause and effect
-has a moderate effect
-greatest effects with children and the elderly
-change occurs almost immediately
What are the trends of body dissatisfaction in adults?
The rates of dissatisfaction are increasing
How accurate are we of our body perceptions?
-Perceptions of one's body image shape and size are typically inaccurate
-participation in regular PA improves the accuracy of self-perceptions regarding the body
Can exercise addiction be bad for you?
-Not about health
-Can invite exercising to point of damaging the body
-Exercise is often a way of suppressing unwanted feeling states
What are trends seen with PA dependancy?
71% of regular exercisers experienced problems
-injured runners simply
3 features of eating disorders?
-culture of thinness
-gender, ethnicity, SES
-pathologically preoccupied with appearance of the whole body
-concerned that they are not sufficiently large or muscular
-are consumed by weightlifting, dieting and steroid abuse
What disability is often seen with eating dis?
What is sport psyc?
The scientific study of ppl and their behaviours in sport
-the role of a sport CP is to recognize how participation in PA and sport exercise enhances a person's development
What are some key areas in sport psyc?
Assisting athletes and their coaches in improving performance during competitive situations, as well as understanding how phys ex may contribute to the psyc wellbeing of non-athletes
What are the 4Cs of performance?
1. Concentration- ability to maintain focus despite distractions
2. Confidence- believe in one's abilities
3. Control- ability to maintain emotional control regardless of distraction
4. Commitment- ability to continue working to agreed goals
What are the 2 evolution adaptions of sport psyc?
1. info processing
-detection of movement in the visual field
What is an important feature of arousal regulation?
There is a zone of optimal functioning
-it's mental not physiological
4 techniques to reduce arousal`
2. progressive relaxation
4. autogenic training
-feeling associated with the limbs and muscles of the body
Techniques to increase arousal
1. pep talks
2. bulletin boards
3. pre-competitive workouts
4. verbal cues
The ability to perform despite distractions
2 types of distractions
1. INTERNAL DISTRACTIONS
-thoughts, worries, concerns
-living in the past/future
2. EXTERNAL DISTRACTIONS
Visual vs auditory distractions video
video: external factors in the crowd- is visual or auditory more distracting
look at free throw shooting- create baseline
HR- only increased 10 beats and missed 8/10 instead of 9/10 (control)
auditory- a lot more- HR went up 25b, only hit 6/10
Who is Sandy and what were elements that played a role in how her story played out?
Sandy the figure skater video- Sandy training to be doing world juniors
-has back injury
-goes to regionals last minute
-coach was oretty negative too
-she spoke the whole time about the pain, how she wasn’t ready
-wasn’t practicing properly
-all features setting her up to fail already
Information transfer and interference
◦ Injury management
◦ Goal setting
◦ Self management
What are 2 types of pain
1. NOCICEPTIVE PAIN
-visceral pain (internal)
2. NEUROPATHIC PAIN
How can CBT be used for pain management?
-pain is going to kill me to the pain is manageable
-stress and anger management
-setting realistic goals
How can visualization be used for pain management?
progressive muscle relaxation
-yoga, meditation, hypnosis
-strong empirical support
-session is 30-60m
-induce deep state of relaxation
-visualization ideal performance