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Flashcards in Issues Deck (24):

For the Black vs White debate, what would an exercise physiologist look at?

Physiological/bio differences
eg. muscle fibers, biochem


For the Black vs White debate, what would a biomechanist look at?

Physics/mechanics of performance (eg. hang time and gravity)


For the Black vs White debate, what would a sociologist look at?

Participation patterns and social opportunity


For the Black vs White debate, what would a psychologist look at?

Motivation to compete and the psyc out


For the Black vs White debate, what would pedagogy look at?

Differential exposure to learning and instruction


For the Black vs White debate, what would health promotion look at?

Incidence of disease within and across racial groups


For the Black vs White debate, what would recreation look at?

Cultural connections and differences in rec participation


What concerns do you have about the intensity of training and the intense focus on sport for 8 yr olds?

burn out, speciaizing in one sport only and doing it all year, not developing other skills beyond that one sport
drop out- have put all eggs in one basket


What benefits or potential benefits are there for Trenton and Sarah?

good work ethic, teach them, they are motivated, driven, if on team sports- you dev social connections, getting enough PA, learning the importance of winning and losing


What are the physical problems with specialization at a young age for athletes?

-developmental appropriate
-physical dev, (eg bones)
-sexual maturation
-risk of injury
-nutrition needs/balance


What are the psyc problems with specialization at a young age for sports?

-competition stress
-specialization (both narrow sport and reduced academics)


What are the social problems with specialization at a young age for sports?

-reduced interaction
-age/dev appropriate interactions
-parental- expectations and investement


What is the def of sport specialization

-9months or longer only playing that sport


What is adultification?

lose the focus of the child
-bragging rights
-coaching records


What is the average length of high level competitive career for athletes?

10-14 yrs
-peak age depends on sport
eg sprinting males= 18-24
marathon for females- 30-35


Trends for female gymnists? Why?

getting waaay smaller
-technical and artistic
-subjective shift away from strength and maturity towards flexibility, power and usefulness
-higher marks for rotational elements and releases
-aesthetic elements-- preference for thinness
-cultural differences in the approach


What are recent trends seen with gymnastics?

Age regulated at the international level
-prior to 1981-- 14 yrs
-raised in 1997-- 16 yrs
-emphasis on power, strength and flexibility


How might the disciplines of biomechanics and health promotion view the issue of gymnists getting smaller?

-BM- smaller so ppl can rotate faster and generate more power


What is the most common weight reduction strategy?

Rapid wight loss (within the week before the competition) principally by decreasing body fluids
-severe dieting or starvation, fluid restriction, passive (sauna) or active (exercise in "sweat suits")
-use of diuretics/laxitives or self-induced vomiting
Weight matched sports- boxing, wresting, judo etc


What are the short term consequences of rapid weight reduction?

1. -less energy
-slowed metabolism
-loss of muscle mass
-reduced endurance capacity leading to underperformance
2. -increased risk of mental and physical exhaustion
3. -the most extreme consequences of rapid excessive weight loss (of greater than 10%) may result in collapse and possible death


What are the long term consequences of rapid weight reduction?

-eating dis (eg bul or anorexia) or other health problems related to poor energy and nutrient intakes
-recommended that athletes maintain body fat levels at 8-12% for males and 16-20% for females


How common really is it to become pro?

NCAA- from HS 3% will play in NCAA
-2% get scholarships
-basketball- 1% will make it to the NBA
-football about 2% will make it to NFL

Hockey- NHL
50% of players in NHL will play less than 100games
-4% will play 1000
-5% will play only 1 game
-to receive a pension you must play 400


What are the recommendations for young athletes?

-participate at a level consistent with interests and abilities
-specialization in a single sport discouraged before ado
-coached by ppl with knowledge of proper training, equipment, and the unique physical, physiological and characteristics of young competitors
-early recognition and treatment of physical stress
-regular monitoring focused on serial measurement (eg. body composition, sex maturation, weight loss)
-ongoing assessment of nut intake
-athlete, family and coach should be educated about the risks of heat injurt and strategies for prevention


How might the disciplines of psyc and sociology view the issue of intensely training young athletes? (both pos and neg)

PSYC pos
-success builds SE
-teaches life skills (determination, persistence, goal setting)
-builds relationships
-fosters relaxation, wellness
PSYC neg
-pressure/stress from parental expectations
-reduces SE in some contexts
-anxiety from emphasis on competition
SOC pos
-potentially no class, ethic, or economic boundaries
-portrays minority groups in pos ways
-promotes racial/cultrual relations
SOC neg
-idolization of non-normative models (unrealistic)
-media used to manipulation ends for financial gains
-dominance of competitive or masculine models of leaderships