Flashcards in spotter questions Deck (82)
what are the roots of the lumbosacral trunk?
what are the nerve roots of the pudendal nerve?
what are the three branches of the pudendal nerve?
inferior anal, perineal, dorsal sensory nerves
what foes the inferior anal nerve supply?
external anal sphincter
what does the perineal branch nerve supply?
external urethral sphincter
what do the dorsal sensory nerves supply?
what trunk of the internal iliac artery does the superior gluteal artery branch from?
what tunnel does the internal pudendal artery pass through?
in the pudendal canal on the lateral wall of the fatty inch-anal fossa
what tunnel does the obturators artery pass through?
what does the bulbospongiosus surround in the female?
bulb of the vestible
what happens of the perineal body is significantly weakened?
prolapse - rectocele or enterocele
what event occurs in the ampulla of the uterine tube?
what ligaments form suspensory support for the uterus
uterosacral, transverse cerical, pubocervical
what is the composition of the inferior hypogastric plexus?
both sympathetic and parasympethic fibres
what is the lymphatic drainage of the left ovary?
para-aortic lymph nodes
what vessels lie superior to the pelvic ureter in the female
what are three age related changes in the female pelvis
vaginal atrophy, adipose deposition around pelvic viscera and thinning of pelvic floor muscles
what is the external spermatic fascia derived from?
external oblique aponeurosis
what empties sperm into the head of the epididymis?
what compartment are the bulbourethral glands located in?
deep perineal pouch
what does the ischiocavernosus muscle wrap around and what is its innervation?
wraps around the crura of corpus cavernous and its innervation is the pudendal nerve
what zone is the prostatic urethra associated with?
what is the blood supply and the lymphatic drainage of the prostrate?
inferior vesical artery
internal iliac nodes
what are features that form the pelvic brim?
arcuate line of the pelvis
what nerve passes behind the sacrospinous ligament?
what are three structures that pass through the lesser sciatic foramen?
pudendal nerve, internal pudendal vessels and obturators interns tendon
what is a variant of the kidney?
extra-hilar renal artery
how many vascular segments are in the kidney?
Which preganglionic sympathetic fibres synapse with the ganglia around the superior mesenteric artery?
lesser splanchnic nerves
what is the specific embryological origin of the kidney?
Mesenchyme of the Metanephros which Comes from Intermediate Mesoderm
what fold attaches to the superior surface of the superior surface of the apex of the bladder
median umbilical fold
what type of fibres contract the detrusor muscle?
what is the specific blood supply of the pancreas?
greater pancreatic branch of splenic artery
what ligament does the colic surface of the spleen sit on?
what is the embryological origin of the uncinate process of the pancreas?
derivative of the ventral pancreatic bud
what major vessels lie directly anterior to the uncinate process of the pancreas?
superior mesenteric vessels
which ligament does the splenic artery lie in?
name two branches of the splenic artery to the stomach
short gastric artery and the left gastro-omental arteries
what ligament do the branches of the splenic artery to the stomach lie in?
what is the cystic artery going to the gallbladder a branch of most commonly>
right hepatic artery
what channels combine to form the common hepatic duct?
right and left hepatic ducts
what is the remnant of the ligamentum venousum?
ductus venosus which shunted oxygenated blood from the umbilical vein to the inferior vena cava
what circumstances if the liver palpable in the living body?
only palpable during deep inspiration if it is enlarged
what layers does the perirenal fat lie between?
fibrous capsule of the kidney and renal fascia
what are the roots of the ilioinguinal nerve?
what is the sensory distribution of the ilioinguinal nerve?
supplies skin over anterior scrotum/labia
how many pairs of lumbar arteries are there?
what nerves supply the muscles of the anterior abdominal wall?
subcostal (t12) and iliohypogastric nerves (L1)
which ligament does the left gastric artery run in?
what ligament does the right gastro-mental artery run in?
what do the left and right vagus nerve become in the abdomen?
Left- anterior vagal trunk
right posterior vagal trunk
characteristics of the ileum
shorter vasa recta, more arterial arcades and more fat in the mesentery
what does the ileocolic artery supply?
terminal ileum, caecum and appendix
what are the precise blood supply of the stomach fundus?
short gastric arteries
what are the precise blood supply of the ascending colon
right colic artery
what two vessels have an anastomosis together in the transverse mesocolon?
middle colic artery from the SMA and left coils artery from the IMA form the marginal anastomosis
what tissue foes the sigmoid arteries run in?
where do the free tania coli with mental and mesocloic teniae converge?
which vertebrae does the sigmoid colon end?
what division of the primitive gut does the pyloric antrum come from?
what division of the primitive gut foes the horizontal duodenum come from?
which part of the GI tract are the place circulares in?
which part of the GI tract are the place semilunares in?
which layers are the circular folds of the intestine composed of?
mucosa and submucosa
what empties out of the major duodenal papilla?
bile and pancreatic juices
what part of the duodenum is intraperitoneal?
what is the blood supply of the duodenum?
superior and inferior pancreaticoduodenal arteries
describe the blood supply of the oesophagus
upper 1/3 = inferior thyroid artery
middle 1/3 = descending thoracic aorta
lower 1/3 = left gastric artery
what division of the primitive gut is the transverse rectal fold derived from?
state the venous blood flow of the dentate (pectinate) line
above = portal circulation
below = systemic circulation
what is the sensory nerve supply of the dentate (pectinate line)
above = lumbar splanchnic nerve
below = pudendal nerve
what is the epithelium of the dendate?
above = simple columnar from endoderm
below = stratified squamous from ectoderm
what attaches to there igth crus of diaphragm?
body of L3
what muscles contribute to the anterior rectus sheath
external and internal oblique aponeurosis
what other structures pass through the vena cava, oesophageal and aortic hiatuses?
aortic- thoracic duct
oesophageal- vagus nerves
vena cava- phrenic nerve
what runs in the medial umbilical fold?
obliterated umbilical artery
what fold does the inferior epigastric branch of the external iliac artery run in?
lateral umbilical fold
what type of hernia occurs lateral to the inferior epigastric branch
indirect inguinal hernia
what does the omental (epipolic) foramen connect and what two vessels lie in-between?
connects create sec with lesser sac
lies between portal vein and IVC
which organs make the anterior and posterior borders of f the lesser sac?
stomach- anterior border
pancreas- posterior border
which vessels are related to the right/ vs left inframesocolic spaces?
superior mesenteric branches - right
inferior mesenteric branches- left