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Flashcards in spotter questions Deck (82)
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1

what are the roots of the lumbosacral trunk?

L4-L5

2

what are the nerve roots of the pudendal nerve?

S2-S4

3

what are the three branches of the pudendal nerve?

inferior anal, perineal, dorsal sensory nerves

4

what foes the inferior anal nerve supply?

external anal sphincter

5

what does the perineal branch nerve supply?

external urethral sphincter

6

what do the dorsal sensory nerves supply?

erectile tissue

7

what trunk of the internal iliac artery does the superior gluteal artery branch from?

posterior trunk

8

what tunnel does the internal pudendal artery pass through?

in the pudendal canal on the lateral wall of the fatty inch-anal fossa

9

what tunnel does the obturators artery pass through?

obturator canal

10

what does the bulbospongiosus surround in the female?

bulb of the vestible

11

what happens of the perineal body is significantly weakened?

prolapse - rectocele or enterocele

12

what event occurs in the ampulla of the uterine tube?

fertilisation

13

what ligaments form suspensory support for the uterus

uterosacral, transverse cerical, pubocervical

14

what is the composition of the inferior hypogastric plexus?

both sympathetic and parasympethic fibres

15

what is the lymphatic drainage of the left ovary?

para-aortic lymph nodes

16

what vessels lie superior to the pelvic ureter in the female

uterine arteries

17

what are three age related changes in the female pelvis

vaginal atrophy, adipose deposition around pelvic viscera and thinning of pelvic floor muscles

18

what is the external spermatic fascia derived from?

external oblique aponeurosis

19

what empties sperm into the head of the epididymis?

efferent ductules

20

what compartment are the bulbourethral glands located in?

deep perineal pouch

21

what does the ischiocavernosus muscle wrap around and what is its innervation?

wraps around the crura of corpus cavernous and its innervation is the pudendal nerve

22

what zone is the prostatic urethra associated with?

transitional zone

23

what is the blood supply and the lymphatic drainage of the prostrate?

inferior vesical artery
internal iliac nodes

24

what are features that form the pelvic brim?

arcuate line of the pelvis
pectoral line
sacral promontory

25

what nerve passes behind the sacrospinous ligament?

pudendal nerve

26

what are three structures that pass through the lesser sciatic foramen?

pudendal nerve, internal pudendal vessels and obturators interns tendon

27

what is a variant of the kidney?

extra-hilar renal artery

28

how many vascular segments are in the kidney?

5

29

Which preganglionic sympathetic fibres synapse with the ganglia around the superior mesenteric artery?

lesser splanchnic nerves

30

what is the specific embryological origin of the kidney?

Mesenchyme of the Metanephros which Comes from Intermediate Mesoderm

31

what fold attaches to the superior surface of the superior surface of the apex of the bladder

median umbilical fold

32

what type of fibres contract the detrusor muscle?

parasympathetic fibres

33

what is the specific blood supply of the pancreas?

greater pancreatic branch of splenic artery

34

what ligament does the colic surface of the spleen sit on?

phreno-colic ligament

35

what is the embryological origin of the uncinate process of the pancreas?

derivative of the ventral pancreatic bud

36

what major vessels lie directly anterior to the uncinate process of the pancreas?

superior mesenteric vessels

37

which ligament does the splenic artery lie in?

splenorenal ligament

38

name two branches of the splenic artery to the stomach

short gastric artery and the left gastro-omental arteries

39

what ligament do the branches of the splenic artery to the stomach lie in?

gastrosplenic ligament

40

what is the cystic artery going to the gallbladder a branch of most commonly>

right hepatic artery

41

what channels combine to form the common hepatic duct?

right and left hepatic ducts

42

what is the remnant of the ligamentum venousum?

ductus venosus which shunted oxygenated blood from the umbilical vein to the inferior vena cava

43

what circumstances if the liver palpable in the living body?

only palpable during deep inspiration if it is enlarged

44

what layers does the perirenal fat lie between?

fibrous capsule of the kidney and renal fascia

45

what are the roots of the ilioinguinal nerve?

L1

46

what is the sensory distribution of the ilioinguinal nerve?

supplies skin over anterior scrotum/labia

47

how many pairs of lumbar arteries are there?

4 pairs

48

what nerves supply the muscles of the anterior abdominal wall?

subcostal (t12) and iliohypogastric nerves (L1)

49

which ligament does the left gastric artery run in?

hepatogastric ligament

50

what ligament does the right gastro-mental artery run in?

gastrocolic ligament

51

what do the left and right vagus nerve become in the abdomen?

Left- anterior vagal trunk
right posterior vagal trunk

52

characteristics of the ileum

shorter vasa recta, more arterial arcades and more fat in the mesentery

53

what does the ileocolic artery supply?

terminal ileum, caecum and appendix

54

what are the precise blood supply of the stomach fundus?

short gastric arteries

55

what are the precise blood supply of the ascending colon

right colic artery

56

what two vessels have an anastomosis together in the transverse mesocolon?

middle colic artery from the SMA and left coils artery from the IMA form the marginal anastomosis

57

what tissue foes the sigmoid arteries run in?

sigmoid mesocolon

58

where do the free tania coli with mental and mesocloic teniae converge?

appendix

59

which vertebrae does the sigmoid colon end?

s3

60

what division of the primitive gut does the pyloric antrum come from?

foregut

61

what division of the primitive gut foes the horizontal duodenum come from?

midgut

62

which part of the GI tract are the place circulares in?

jejunum

63

which part of the GI tract are the place semilunares in?

colon

64

which layers are the circular folds of the intestine composed of?

mucosa and submucosa

65

what empties out of the major duodenal papilla?

bile and pancreatic juices

66

what part of the duodenum is intraperitoneal?

superior part

67

what is the blood supply of the duodenum?

superior and inferior pancreaticoduodenal arteries

68

describe the blood supply of the oesophagus

upper 1/3 = inferior thyroid artery
middle 1/3 = descending thoracic aorta
lower 1/3 = left gastric artery

69

what division of the primitive gut is the transverse rectal fold derived from?

hindgut

70

state the venous blood flow of the dentate (pectinate) line

above = portal circulation
below = systemic circulation

71

what is the sensory nerve supply of the dentate (pectinate line)

above = lumbar splanchnic nerve
below = pudendal nerve

72

what is the epithelium of the dendate?

above = simple columnar from endoderm
below = stratified squamous from ectoderm

73

what attaches to there igth crus of diaphragm?

body of L3

74

what muscles contribute to the anterior rectus sheath

external and internal oblique aponeurosis

75

what other structures pass through the vena cava, oesophageal and aortic hiatuses?

aortic- thoracic duct
oesophageal- vagus nerves
vena cava- phrenic nerve

76

what runs in the medial umbilical fold?

obliterated umbilical artery

77

what fold does the inferior epigastric branch of the external iliac artery run in?

lateral umbilical fold

78

what type of hernia occurs lateral to the inferior epigastric branch

indirect inguinal hernia

79

what does the omental (epipolic) foramen connect and what two vessels lie in-between?

connects create sec with lesser sac
lies between portal vein and IVC

80

which organs make the anterior and posterior borders of f the lesser sac?

stomach- anterior border
pancreas- posterior border

81

which vessels are related to the right/ vs left inframesocolic spaces?

superior mesenteric branches - right
inferior mesenteric branches- left

82

what do the dorsal and ventral mesogastrium become?

dorsal- greater momentum and spleen develops in it
ventral becomes lesser momentum and liver develops in it