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Flashcards in gross pathology Deck (38)
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1

chron's disease 

the red arrow is a stricture which is a narrowing of the bowel lumen 

2

chron's disease

the star representes transmural inflammation of the bowel wall 

3

characteristics of chrons disease

cn have a transmural inflammation of the bowel wall, strictures and fistula formation (abnormal connections between two epithelial surfaces) 

can effect any aprt of the GIT

granuloma formation 

4

assocaited risks with chrons disease

increased risk of developing colorectal cancer 

5

bowel infarction 

transmural inflammation with darkened discolouration of the bowel wall 

6

causes of bowel infarction

adhesions causing an obstruction, hernia strangulation, mesenteric artery or vein thombosis/embolism and volvulus (twisting of bowel) 

7

symptomes of bowel infarction

severe abdominal pain, nausea and bloody stools 

patient can die from septic shock 

8

diverticulitis 

diverticula of the colon. out pouchings of the layers of the bowel wall. occur most commonly in the sigmoid colon 

9

causes of diverticulitis 

low fibre diet and chornic constipation 

10

symptoms of the diverticulitis 

left iliac fossa pain 

11

complications of diverticulitis 

intestinal bleeding, fistula formation, bowel perforation, peritoneal infection or bowel obstruction due to post inflammatory strictures 

12

colon adenocarcinoma

blue stars = dysplatic adenomalous polyps 

red stars = annular and fungating in lumen 

13

microscopic features of colon adenocarcinoma 

cells show pleiomorphism 

14

results of colon adenocarcnimoa 

luminal narrowing which can progress to bowel obstruction 

in caecal cancer= anemia rather than bowel obstruction due to large caecal lumen 

15

tumor progression of colon adenocarcinoma 

based on the size of the cacner, its depth of invasion into the lumen, lymph nodes involved and presence of metastases 

16

symptoms of colon adenocarcinoma

blood in stool, tiredness and weightloss 

17

risk factors of colon adenocarincinoma 

increased age, family history, alcohol intake and obesity 

18

acute appendicitis 

red stars show where hardened faeces calcify and form stones (faecoliths) impacting inside the appendical luman and obstructing it 

19

complications of acute appendicitis 

can cause gangrene and perforation due to the obstructed appendix and its dilation 

perforated appendix can result in peritoneal infection and septic shock 

20

acute hemorrhagic pancreatitis 

red stars = pale areas of enzymatic fat necrosis 

blue stars = dark patches of haemorrhage 

21

sypmtoms of pancreatitis 

severe epigastric pain and nausea 

22

causes of pancreatitist

gall stones in bile duct, alcoholism, trauma, various metabolism and autoimmune conditions 

23

microscopic characteristics of pancreatitis

calcifciation, wide spread cell death, lobular oedema, inflammatory infiltrate around the ducts 

24

complications of pancraetitis

retroperitoneal bleeding, diabetes, pseudocyst formation, multiple organ failure and shock 

25

cirrhoris 

red stars = replacement of functional hepatocytes with non-functional fibrotic areas and regenerative nodules 

may be smaller than normal livers 

26

causes of cirrhoris 

alcoholism, viral hepatitis infection, obesity cuasing steatosis (fatty liver) and various genetic conditions 

27

comlications of cirrhoris 

bleeding oesophageal varices (due to portal congestion), splenomegaly (enlarged spleen), asates (fluid in abdomen), hepatic encephalopathy (confusion due to increase ammonia), kidney fialure, hemorrhoids and liver cancer 

28

metasases of liver/ secondary liver cancer

livers tend to be larger due to uninterupted cellular growth  

29

spread of secondary liver cancer

vasculature of lymphatic 

30

adult polycystic kidney disease 

blue stars = cysts that are dark due to haemorrhage

replacement of functional kidney tissue with non-functional fluid filled cysts  

31

complications of adult polycystic kidney disease

lead to early renal failure

increases the risk of developing berry aneurysms in cerebral vasculature 

32

renal infarction 

red stars = pale peripheral based triangular areas caused by segmental renal artery thrmobosis, arterial injury or systemic thromboembolism 

in chronic phase, these areas shrink, resulting in capsular contraction and renal cortical fibrosis 

33

sypmtoms of renal infarction

flank pain and blood in urine 

34

benign prostatic hyperplasia 

enlarged gland compresses and narrows the prostatic segment of the urthra resulting in chronic bladder outlet obstruction. 

35

complications of benign prostatic hyperplasia

causes bladder wall thickening, trabeculation bladder diverticulum formation and possibly hydroureter (dilation of ureters due to backflow of urine) 

36

symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia 

difficulty urinating 

37

uterine leimyoma - fibroids 

benign tumours of smooth muscle extending from the uterine layers. 

smooth, well circumscribed appearance and do not invade into surrounding tissue 

can be submucosal (red star), mural (blue star) or subserosal (red stars) or pedunculated (stalk which predisposes to torsion or twisting) 

38

symptoms of uterine leiomyoma 

can be asyptomatic or chronic pelvic pain, heavy periods and excessive urination 

can cause infertility