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Flashcards in reproductive system Deck (79)
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1

function of the reproductive system

protect the reproductive organs, parts of urinary and GIT organs
muscular attachments - act as a base for them to work
transmission of body weight

2

what is above/below the pelvic brim?

above is false pelvis, below is true pelvis

3

what is the perineum?

under the outlet, where you get the external genetelia and openings for the reportand urinary system

4

sexual dimorphism between male and female pelvis

pubic angle is more narrow in the male
female pelvis is broader but not as high
obturators foramen is round is male and oval in female
greater sciatic foramen is a J shape in male and L shape in female

5

effects that pelvic shape may have on the rest of the body

female pelvis is wider- the legs start from a wider, so the angle of the knees are different
elbow may also be changed (when you swing your arms)

6

report differences between male and female

male- gonads are external
genitalia are bigger
urinary sphincters are different- separated by the prostrate
urethra is much longer in male
female- gonads/ ovaries are internal
erectile tissue is there but less prominent, but same basic shape
- two openings- creating potential weakness
- nothing between the sphincters

7

attachments of the sacrospinous ligament

sacrum to ischial spine

8

attachments of the sacrotuberous ligament

sacrum to the ischial tuberosity

9

attachments of the sacroiliac ligament

sacrum to the ileum
has anterior and posterior covering the scar-iliac joint

10

attachment of the ileopectinal ligament

from the ileum to the pectineal line

11

what are the broad/round ligament?

condensations of connective tissue that are weaker

12

why do you have strong sacrotuberous/ sacrospinous ligaments?

close a lot of space
the vertebral column and sacrum moe a lot and you don't want them to separate

13

similarities between the obturator interns and piriformis muscle

bulk of the muscle bodies are inside the pelvis
muscle tendon exits the pelvis either through the greater sciatic foramen or lesser sciatic foramen and attaches to the lower limb where it produces movement of the hip
- closed in other space still present within pelvis

14

what is part of the pelvic diaphragm,?

levator ani and occygeus

15

levator ani

three muscles = puborecatlis, pubococcygeus and ileococcygeus

16

iliococcygeus function

fixes bladder neck, anorectal junction and vaginal fornices in place
functions in urinartion, defecation, uterine elements,
sex response

17

attachments of pelvis diaphragm

has kind of slipped down
attaches to the arches tendinous and attaches to the inside of the obturator interns

18

ischiococcygeus attachment

from ischial spine to the coccyx

19

iliococcygeus attachment

arcus tendineus to the coccyx

20

urogenital hiatus between male and female

in female it is a bigger structure

21

arcus tendineus

from the pubis to the spine
condensation of fascia
pubococcygeus attaches at the front and the ileococcygeus attaches to the back of the arc

22

pubococcygeus

arises from the back of the pubic bone and back of the arc
forms urogenital hiatus
pubourethralis, pubovaginalis, puboprostaticis

23

puborectalis

forms an anorectal sling- important for fatal continence
more superficial than the rest of the pelvic diaphragm

24

iliococcygeus

from the posterior prt of tendinous arc
join in the midline - therefore insert on each other

25

levator plate

anococcygeal ligament- is where the muscle join in the middle . deep ACl is much stronger

26

straining of pelvis

the iliococcygeus is more flat when strained than at rest
push against levator plate- so stop from pushing out e.g. vagina etc.

27

weak levator ani

prolapse and weakness

28

ishiococcygeus

take muscle part off there is the sacrospinous ligament
therefore two coextensive structures - in elderly people the muscle is far less prominent

29

external anal sphincter

made from skeletal muscle
has a subcutaneous, superficial and deep layer
have voluntary control

30

puborectalis and deep layer of external anal sphinter

continous
pelvic diapgrahm and external anal sphincter are linked- need to work in a coordinated manner for defecation to occur

31

what is in the superficial perineal pouch?

erectile tissue and associated muscles
in females = greater vestibular glands

32

erectile tissue females

clitoris and bulbs of vestibule

33

posterior join labia majora

fourchette

34

opening of duct of parautheral gland

equivalent of the prostrate

35

opening on f the greater vestibular gland

equivalent to bulbourethral gland

36

scrotum

fusion of labia majora

37

differences between male and female

male= one opening of urethral opening
bulbourethral glands in the deep pouch
female= two opening
greater vestibular glands in the superficial pouch

38

perineal membrane attachments

to the rami of the pubs and ischium

39

external urethral sphincter in females

has compressor urethrae

40

deep transverse perineal muscle

is smooth muscle in females- distend during child birth
is skeletal muscle in men

41

perineal body

important attachment site of perineal muscles
has smooth muscle, elastic tissue
capable of massive distension during childbirth

42

what does the relation of the gonad have to do with the peritoneum?

in both genders they start up near the kidneys retroperitoneally and they descend down either into pelvis or scrotum
as testis moves it takes the peritoneum with it
ovary is still within the peritoneal cavity- so is completely covered with peritoneum (which is broken overtime ovulation occurs)

43

what is part of the broad ligament?

mesometrium - next to uterus mesosalpinx- next to tube and the mesovarium - next to ovary

44

what are remnant of the govunaculum?

the round ligament and ligament of the ovary
the govunaculum descended the ovaries in fatal development.

45

suspensory ligament of ovary

fold of peritoneum- non ligament ligament

46

uterine tube

has infundibulum, ampulla and isthmus, then intramural opening into uterus

47

cornua

top of uterus forms quite distinct horns in animals

48

shape of cervix

round shape = haven't given birth
dilation with slit external os = has given birth

49

orientation of uterus

version= angle between vagina and cervix
flexion= angle between cervix and rest of uterine body

50

space around the cervix

posterior fornix is much deeper than the anterior fornix
not much tissue that separated of the inside of the vigana to the inside of the peritoneal cavity

51

relationship of blood supply laterally of cervix to uereter

uterine artery goes on top of the ureter- water under the bridge

52

epithelium of vagina and cervix

vagina = stratified squamous epithelium
cervix = simple columnar glandular epithelium. also has mucous producing glands, mucous filled cysts

53

cervial transformation zone

hormones drive uterine changes with menstrual changes- in cervix
acidic environment in the vagina. get a movement in the boundary of the two types of epithelium

54

fascial condensations inside peritoneum

endopelvic fascia- condensations of connective tissue, they primarily attach around the cervix at the bottom of the uterus, not the top because during pregnancy the top of the uterus has to move and grow, so you don't want to anchor that in place.
uterosacral ligament, transverse cervical ligament and pubovesical ligament

55

scrotum

testis has double layer of peritoneum (tunica vaginalis) around it- therefore certain amount of movement of testis within the scrotum

testis and overlying scrotum have different blood and nerve supplies and different lymphatic drainage

56

cremaster muscle

derived from the internal oblique
draws the testis towards the body

57

dartos muscle

close to the surface of the skin
more akin to muscle of fascial expression- wrinkles the skin

58

seminal vesciel

produce another part of the semen, like the nutrients and energy

59

ejaculatory duct

formed by ductus deferences and the seminal vesicle

60

uvula

projection in the trigone caused by the median lobe of the prostrate (hypertrophy) in older men

61

zones of the prostrate

transition, central, peripheral and anterior

62

prostatic utricle

embryonic remnant of what would have been the uterus in the vagina

63

transitional zone of the prostrate

sits around urethra
where benign protastic hypertrophy occurs

64

peripheral zone of prostrate

extends up back of prostate- can palpate for tumours

65

corpora amylacea

concetion of prostatic fluid

66

tunica albuginea in the penis

covers the corpus cavernous and prevents the leakage of blood

67

blood supply male branches of internal iliac

inferior vesical artery - supply the prostrate, seminal vesicle,
internal pudendal- supplies perineal muscles and erectile tissue (dorsal and deep arteries of penis, posterior scrotal arteries)
anterior scrotal arteries

68

blood supply female, branches of internal iliac

uterine artery
internal pudendal artery ( dorsal and deep arteries of clitoris and posterior labial arteries)
anterior labial arteries

69

why do ovarian and uterine artery anastamose

the lymphatic drainage is dependent on the blood supply
both supply uterine tube and upper part of uterus

70

lymphatic drainage of the repro

lymphatic drainage of ovary and testis drains upwards
therefore disease passes upwards and internally to the aorta
why ovarian and testicular cancer are a problem because they spread
lympathic drainage follows the arterial supply

71

scrotum and testis drainage

skin --> superficial inguinal lymph nodes
deep tissues --> deep inguinal and external and internal iliac lymph nodes

72

how might disease spread in the female report system

lymphatic spread along the round ligaments to the superficial inguinal nodes from from the uterus
ovaries to the para-aortic nodes

73

nerve supply of the perneum

S2, S3 and S4/5 supply the perineum = sensation to the skin

74

pudendal nerve

s2-4
sensation
supply the external anal sphincter
external urinary sphincter
muscles in volved in the sex response
runs under/ superficial to the pelvic diaphragm

75

nerve to levator ani

s3-5
may come off separately from plexus in the sacrum
runs above pelvic diaphragm

76

autonomic nerves of the pelvis

internal anal and urethral sphincter are involuntary
derived from the parasympathetic ro sympathetic
above the elevator ani is mostly autonomic, but a little bit of somatic supply
under the elevator and is innervated by the pudendal nerve with a little autonomic supply

77

nerves pass close to the prostrate

risk in prostatic surgery

78

effect of ageing

uterine and ovarian volume decreases
upper rectum contracts, rectal ampulla increases in size
position of pelvic floor changes
vaginal wall thins, fewer mucosal folds,
perineal body smaller, perineum longer
pelvic floor muscles thin
more adipose tissue

79

sexual response

erection = PNS, ingressive blood into erectile tissue
emission= SNS, movement of sperm
ejaculatory = rhythmic contraction of skeletal muscle = pudendal nerve