SR 34 - GI Hormones and Physiology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in SR 34 - GI Hormones and Physiology Deck (39):
1

What do these cells produce? Gastric parietal cells

HCl
Intrinsic factor

2

What do these cells produce? Chief cells

Pepsinogen

3

What do these cells produce? G cells

Gastrin
Found in the antrum

4

What do these cells produce? Mucous neck cells

Bicarbonate mucus

5

Name the receptors on the parietal cell that stimulates hCl release

Histamine
Acetylcholine
Gastrin

6

Where is most of hte bile acids absorbed?

Terminal ileum

7

Where is intrinsic factor + B12 absorbed?

Terminal ileum

8

How may times is the entire bile acid pool circulated during a typical meal?

Twice

9

What are timulators of gallbladder emptying?

CCK
Vagal inuput

10

What are the inhibitors of gallbladder emptying?

Somatostatin
Sympathteitcs (you cannot flee and ingest food at the same time)
VIP

11

What stimulates the release of CCK?

Fat, protein, amino acids, HCl, antral stretch

12

What inhibits the release of CCK?

Trypsin
Chymotrypsin

13

What are CCKs actions?

Empties gallbladder
Opens ampulla of vater
Slows gastric emptying
Stimulates pancreatic acinar cell growth and release of exocrine products

14

What is the source of CCK?

Duodenal mucosal cells

15

What is the source of secretin?

Duodenal cells (argyrophilic S cells)

16

What stimulates secretin release?

pH

17

What inhibits release of secretin?

High pH in the duodenum

18

What are the actions of secretin?

Release pancreatic bicarb/enzymes/H2O
Release bile/bicarbonate
Decreases lower esophageal sphincter tone
Decrease release of gastric acid

19

What is the source of gastrin?

Gastric antrum G-cells

20

What stimulates gastrin release?

Stomach peptides/amino acids
Vagal input
Calcium

21

What inhibits gastrin release?

pH

22

What are the actions of gastrin?

Release of HCl from parietal cells
Trophic effect on mucosa of the stomach and small intestine

23

What is the source of somatostatin?

Pancreatic D cells

24

What stimulates the release of somatostatin?

Food

25

What are the actions of somatostatin?

Globally inhibits GI function

26

What is the purpose of hte colon?

Reabsoprtion of H2O and storage of stool

27

What is the main small bowel nutritional source?

Glutamine

28

What is the main nutritional souce of the colon?

Butyrate (short-chain fatty acid)

29

Where is calcium absorbed?

Duodenum actively
Jejunum passively

30

Where is iron absorbed?

Duodenum

31

What hormone primarily controls gallbladder contraction?

CCK

32

What are hte main constituents of bile?

Water, phospholipids, bile acids, cholesterol, bilirubin

33

How do opiates affect the bowel?

They stimulate sodium absoprtion and inhibit secretion in the ileum as well as decreasing GI motility by incoordinated peristalsis

34

Which electrolytes does the colon actively absorb?

Na, Cl

35

Which electrolyte does the colon actively secrete?

HCO3 (which is why diarrhea causes normal anion gap acidosis)

36

Which electrolyte does the colon passively secrete?

K+

37

What is hte gastrocolic reflex?

Increased secretory and motor functions of the stomach result n increased colonic motility

38

What is the blood supply to the liver?

75% from portal vein (products of digestion)
25% from hepatic artery (rich in O2)

39

What are Peyer patches?

Nodules of lymphoid tissue with B/T cells in the small intestine that selectively sample lumenal antigens found in the terminal ileum.