SR 38 - Trauma Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in SR 38 - Trauma Deck (92):
1

First five steps of the primary survey?

Airway and C-spine stabilization
Breathing
Circulation
Disability
Exposure and environment

2

What are the steps of a cricothyroidotomy?

Incise the cricothyroid membrane between the cricoid cartilage inferiorly and the thyroid cartilage superiorly and place an ET or tracheostomy tube into the trachea

3

What are the parts of a good breathing assessment?

Inspection - air movement, respiratory rate, cyanosis, tracheal shift, JVD, asymmetric chest expansion, accessory muscle use, open chest wounds
Auscultation - breath sounds
Percussion - hyperresonance or dullness
Palpation - subcutaneous emphysema, flail chest

4

Life-threatening conditions that need to be identified and treated during the breathing stage?

Tension pneumothorax
Open pneumothorax
Massive hemothorax

5

Treatment of a tension pneumothorax?

Needle thoracostomy - 2nd ICS MCL
Followed by, tube thoracostomy in anterior/midaxillary line in 4th ICS

6

What does a pneumothorax look like on a CXR?

Loss of lung markings
Straight lines

7

What is the major cause of respiratory compromise with flail chest?

Underlying pulmonary contusion

8

What is the treatment for a flail chest?

Intubation with positive pressure ventilation
PEEP PRN
(Allows the ribs to heal)

9

Define Beck's Triad

Hypotension
Muffled heart sounds
JVD

10

Define Kussmaul's sign

JVD with inspiration

11

How do you diagnose cardiac tamponade?

Ultrasound - echocardiogram

12

What is the treatment of cardiac tamponade?

Pericardial window
If blood returns, complete median sternotomy to R/O cardiac injury

13

What is the treatment of a massive hemothorax?

Volume replacement
Tube thoracostomy
Removal of blood (allows apposition of parietal and virsceral pleura - seals the defect)

14

What is the initial assessment for adequate circulation?

Palpation of pulses
Radial - 80mmHg
Femoral/carotid - 60mmHg

15

What are the parts of a good circulation assessment?

Heart rate
Blood pressure
Peripheral perfusion
Urinary output
Mental status
Capillary refill (normal

16

Who won't mount a tachycardic response to hypovolemic shock?

Spinal cord injury
On B-blockers
Well-conditioned atheletes

17

What is the trauma resuscitation fluid of choice?

Lactated Ringer's solution
Isotonic and the lactate helps buffer the hypovolemia-induced metabolic acidosis

18

What decompressions do trauma patient receive?

Gastric decompression - NGT
Bladder decompression - foley AFTER normal rectal exam

19

Contraindications to placement of a foley?

Signs of urethral injury:
- Severe pelvic fracture in men
- Blood at the urethral meatus
- 'High-riding' 'ballotable' prostate
- Scrotal/perineal injury/ecchymosis

20

What test do you do if urethral injury is suspected prior to placement of a foley catheter?

Retrograde UrethroGram (RUG)
Dye in penis retrograde to the bladder and E-ray to look for extravasation of dye

21

How do you get gastric decompression when a patient has maxillofacial fracture?

Use an OGT
Because an NGT may perforate through the cribiform plate into the brain

22

What are the parts of a good disability assessment?

Neurological assessment
- Mental status - GCS
- Pupils
- Motor/sensory

23

What are the three parts of the GCS?

Eye opening (4)
Motor response (6)
Verbal response (5)

24

What are the stages in GCS - eye opening?

4 - opens spontaneously
3 - opens to voice command
2 - opens to painful stimuli
1 - does not open eyes

25

What are the stages in GCS - motor response?

6 - obeys commands
5 - localizes to painful stimulus
4 - withdraws from pain
3 - decorticate posture
2 - decerebrate posture
1 - no movement

26

What are the stages in GCS - verbal response?

5 - appropriate and oriented
4 - confused
3 - inappropriate words
2 - incomprehensible sounds
1- no sounds

27

Define decorticate posture

Abnormal flexion

28

Define decerebrate posture

Abnormal extension

29

Why do you inspect the ears in trauma?

Hemotympanum and otorrhea is a sign of basilar skull fracture

30

What are typical signs of basilar skull fracture?

Raccoon eyes
Battle's signs
Clear otorrhea or rhinorrhea
Hemotympanum

31

What diagnosis in the anterior chamber must not be missed on the eye exam?

Traumatic hyphema
Blood in the anterior chamber of the eye

32

What potential destructive lesion must not be missed on the nasal exam?

Nasal septal hematoma
If not evacuated, it can cause pressure necrosis in the septum

33

What is the best indication of a mandibular fracture?

Dental malocclusion
Tell the patient to 'bite down' and ask if it feels normal

34

Signs of thoracic trauma are found on the neck exam?

Crepitus or subcutaneous emphysema from tracheobronchial disruption/PTX
Tracheal deviation - tension PTX
JVD - cardiac tamponade
Carotid bruit - carotid artery injury

35

What is the best way to diagnose or rule-out aortic injury?

CT angiogram

36

What must be considered in every penetrating injury of the thorax at or below the nipple?

Injury to the abdomen
Diaphragm extends to the level of the nipples on expiration

37

What conditions must exist to pronounce an abdominal physical exam negative?

Alert patient without evidence of head/spinal cord injury or intoxication

38

What is the seatbelt sign?

Ecchymosis on lower abdomen from wearing a seatbelt
10% will have small bowel perforation

39

What must be documented from the rectal exam?

Sphincter tone (indication of spinal cord function)
Presence of blood (colon or rectal injury)
Prostate position (urethral injury)

40

What patients can have their C-spine cleared during physical exam?

No neck pain on palpation
Full range of motion
No neurological injury - GCS 15
No intoxication
No distracting injury
No pain meds

41

CXR findings suggestive of thoracic aortic injury?

Widened mediastinum
Apical pleural capping
Loss of aortic contour
Depression of left main stem bronchus
NGT/tracheal deviation
Clinical suspicion
High-speed mechanism

42

What is the most common site of thoracic aortic traumatic tear?

Distal to the take-off of the left subclavian artery

43

What studies do you use to evaluate intra-abdominal injury?

FAST (focused assessment with sonography for trauma)
CT scan
DPL (Diagnostic Peritoneal Lavage)

44

What does the FAST exam look for?

Blood int eh peritoneal cavity
You look at Morison's pouch, bladder, spleen and pericardial sac

45

Indication for CT scan in blunt abdominal trauma?

Stable with abdominal pain/tenderness/mechanism

46

Indication for DPL or FAST in blunt abdominal trauma?

Unstable

47

Indicators of a positive peritoneal lavage in blunt trauma?

Classic:
- Inability to read newsprint through the lavage fluid
- RBC >100,000
- WBC >500mm3
- Lavage fluid drained from chest tub, foley, NGT

Less common:
- Bile present
- Bacteria present
- Feces present
- Food matter present
- Elevated amylase level

48

What must be placed before a DPL is performed?

NGT and foley catheter

49

What injuries does CT scan miss?

Small bowel
Diaphragm

50

What injuries does DPL miss?

Retroperitoneal

51

What are the most emergent orthopedic injuries?

Hip dislocation (needs immediate reduction)
Exsanguinating pelvic fracture (binder or external fixator)

52

What findings would require a celiotomy in a blunt trauma victim?

Peritoneal signs
Free air on CXR/CT scan
Unstable patient with positive FAST or DPL

53

Approach to GSW to the belly?

Exploratory laparotomy

54

Evaluation of stab wound to the belly?

Exploratory laparotomy - peritoneal signs, heavy bleeding, shock
Otherwise, observe, or local wound exploration to rule out fascial penetration or DPL

55

What depth of neck injury must be further evaluated?

Penetrating injury through the platysma

56

Anatomy of the neck by trauma zones - zone III

Angele of the mandible and up

57

Anatomy of the neck by trauma zones - zone II

Angle of the mandible to the cricoid cartilage

58

Anatomy of the neck by trauma zones - zone I

Below the cricoid cartilage

59

How do you treat penetrating neck injuries to zone III?

Selective exploration

60

How do you treat penetrating neck injuries to zone II?

Dependent on status - surgical exploration vs. selective exploration

61

How do you treat penetrating neck injuries to zone I?

Selective exploration

62

What is selective exploration?

Based on diagnostic studies - A-gram or CT a-gram, bronchoscopy, esophagoscopy

63

What are the indications for surgical exploration in all penetrating neck wounds?

Hard signs of significant neck damage
- Shock
- Exsanguinating hemorrhage
- Expanding hematoma
- Pulsatile hematoma
- Neurologic injury
- SubQ emphysema

64

What is the Le Forte fracture arrangement?

III - orbital fracture
II - mandible/nasal
I - mandible/oral

65

What is the '3-for-1' rule?

For every 1 L blood loss - 3 L crystalloids

66

How much blood can be lost into the thigh with a closed femur fracture?

1.5 L

67

What population is a surgical cricothyroidotomy not recommended?

Patient younger than 12yo
Perform a needle cricothyroidotomy

68

What are the signs of a laryngeal fracture?

SubQ emphysema in the neck
Altered voice
Palpable laryngeal fracture

69

What is the treatment of a rectal penetrating injury?

Diverting proximal colostomy
Closure of the perforation
Presacral drainage

70

What is the treatment of extraperitoneal minor bladder rupture?

Bladder catheter and observation
(Intraperitoneal or large bladder rupture requires operative closure)

71

What intra-aobdominal injuries are associated with seatbelt use?

Small bowel injury
L2 fracture
Pancreatic injury

72

Bleeding from a pelvic fracture is caused by arterial or venous bleeding?

Venous ~85%

73

If patient has a laceration through their eyebrow - do you shave the eyebrow before suturing?

No - it may not grow back (20%)

74

What is the treatment for extensive irreparable biliary, duodenal, and pancreatic head injury?

Trauma whipple

75

What is the most common intra-abdominal organ injured with penetrating trauma?

Small bowel

76

If you can only run one blood test for a trauma patient, what would you do?

Type and cross for blood transfusion

77

What is the treatment of penetrating injury to the colon?

In shock - resection and colostomy
Stable - primary anastomosis/repair

78

What is the treatment of small bowel injury?

Primary closure or resection and primary anastomosis

79

What is the treatment of minor pancreatic injury?

Drainage

80

What is the most commonly injured abdominal organ with blunt trauma?

Liver

81

What is the treatment for significant duodenal injury?

Pyloric exclusion
- Close duodenal injury
- Staple off pylorus
- Gastrojejunostomy

82

What is the treatment for massive tail of pancreas injury?

Distal pancreatectom with splenectomy

83

What is 'damage control' surgery?

Stop major hemorrhage and GI soilage
Pack and get out of the OR ASAP - bring patient to the ICU to warm, correct coags and resuscitate
Return patient to OR when stable, warm and not acidotic

84

What is the lethal triad?

Acidosis
Coagulopathy
Hypothermia

85

What is the diagnosis if you see a NGT in the chest on a CXR?

Ruptured diaphragm with stomach in the pleural cavity
Take patient to OR - ex-lap

86

What finding on ABD/pelvic CT requires ex-lap in a blunt trauma patient with normal vital signs?

Free air
(No solid organ injury with lots of free fluid - to rule out hollow viscus injury)

87

Can you rely on a negative FAST in the unstable patient with a pelvic fracture?

No - perform DPL (above the umbilicus)

88

What lab tests are used to look for intra-abdominal injury in children?

LFT (increased AST or ALT)

89

What is the only indication for MAST trousers?

Prehospitalization
Pelvic fracture

90

What is the treatment for human and dog bites?

Leave wound open
Irrigation
Antibiotics

91

What is sympathetic ophthalmia?

Blindness in one eye that results in subsequent blindness in the contralateral eye (autoimmune)

92

What can present after blunt trauma with neurological deficits and a normal brain CT scan?

Diffuse axonal injury
Carotid artery injury