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Flashcards in STDs Deck (39)
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1

When exposed to STIs, women are more likely to become ___ and less likely to be ____

When exposed to STIs, women are more likely to become infected and less likely to be symptomatic.

2

__ is the most common sexually transmitted disease in the United States

Chlamydia is the most common sexually transmitted disease in the United States

3

HSV-2 accounts for ___ of the genital herpes infections. HSV-1 accounts for ___ and is the common cause of ___; silent infection is common in this disease. The diagnosis is made by viral culture and subtyping. HSV enters the nerve and remains latent/active in the nerve cell body. It may cause ___ and ___, which may lead to urinary retention

HSV-2 accounts for 90% of the genital herpes infections. HSV-1 accounts for the remainder and is the common cause of cold sores; silent infection is common in this disease. The diagnosis is made by viral culture and subtyping. HSV enters the nerve and remains latent in the nerve cell body. It may cause aseptic meningitis and autonomic dysfunction, which may lead to urinary retention

4

Chancroid is caused by ____ and results in a ___,___ covered by an exudate. ____ occurs and may become suppurative.

Chancroid is caused by Haemophilus ducreyi and results in a painful, nonindurated ulcer covered by an exudate. Inguinal adenopathy occurs and may become suppurative.

5

____  of syphilis is single, painless, indurated, and clean. It is associated with nontender/tender inguinal lymphadenopathy.

. Chancre of syphilis is single, painless, indurated, and clean. It is associated with nontender inguinal lymphadenopathy.

6

Latent syphilis is ___ with no evidence of disease. Early latent syphilis occurs in __. Late latent syphilis occurs___

Latent syphilis is seropositive with no evidence of disease. Early latent syphilis occurs in less than 1 year. Late latent syphilis occurs beyond 1 year

7

Primary syphilis is the ___.

Secondary syphilis is manifested by __ and constitutional signs and symptoms that are often associated with a ___.

Tertiary syphilis is a ___ involving the (3)

Primary syphilis is the acute infection.

Secondary syphilis is manifested by mucocutaneous and constitutional signs and symptoms that are often associated with a maculopapular rash.

Tertiary syphilis is a systemic disease involving the cardiovascular, skeletal, and central nervous system

8

t/F

1. Treponemal tests for syphilis are generally positive for life and do not indicate treatment response.

2. RPR, Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL), and the toluidine red unheated serum test (TRUST) are nontreponemal tests and correlate with disease activity. They are still positive after treatment.

3. Nontreponemal tests (RPR or VDRL) are used to monitor disease activity.

TRUE: Treponemal tests for syphilis are generally positive for life and do not indicate treatment response.

FALSE: RPR, Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL), and the toluidine red unheated serum test (TRUST) are nontreponemal tests and correlate with disease activity. They usually become negative after treatment.

tRUE: Nontreponemal tests (RPR or VDRL) are used to monitor disease activity.

9

The ___ reaction occurs when patients with syphilis are treated with penicillin, resulting in the release of toxic products when the treponemes are killed. The symptoms include: (5)

The Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction occurs when patients with syphilis are treated with penicillin, resulting in the release of toxic products when the treponemes are killed. The symptoms include headache, myalgia, fever, tachycardia, and increased respiratory rate

10

LGV presents as a ___ and ___. LGV is marked by tender inguinal and/or femoral lymphadenopathy, typically ___

LGV presents as a single painless ulcer and painful inguinal adenopathy. LGV is marked by tender inguinal and/or femoral lymphadenopathy, typically unilateral.

11

___ are used for diagnosing chlamydial infection

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays are used for diagnosing chlamydial infection

12

A strawberry rash on the vulva or strawberry cervix is seen in ____

A strawberry rash on the vulva or strawberry cervix is seen in trichomoniasis.

13

More than 99% of cervical cancers and 84% of anal cancers are associated with ___ and ___. The most common serotype associated with squamous cell carcinoma of the penis is ____

More than 99% of cervical cancers and 84% of anal cancers are associated with HPV 16 or 18. The most common serotype associated with squamous cell carcinoma of the penis is HPV 16.

14

Biopsies of genital warts are routinely/not routinely indicated

Biopsies of genital warts are not routinely indicated but should be performed when the wart is atypical, pigmented, indurated, or fixed and ulcerated.

15

HPV vaccine is recommended for females age ___ years and may also be given to males of the same age range.

HPV vaccine is recommended for females age__ years and may also be given to males of the same age range.

16

T/F Antiviral therapy for HIV does not necessarily make the patient infectious.

FALSE : Antiviral therapy for HIV does not necessarily make the patient noninfectious.

17

True/false Men who are circumcised are at lower risk for HIV infection.

TRUE: Men who are circumcised are at lower risk for HIV infection.

18

There are two types of HIV viruses: HIV-1 and HIV-2.

There are very few cases of ___ in the developed world, and it is less easily transmitted and less virulent than ___

There are two types of HIV viruses: HIV-1 and HIV-2. There are very few cases of HIV-2 in the developed world, and it is less easily transmitted and less virulent than HIV-1.

19

HIV is a retrovirus that infects: (2)

HIV is a retrovirus that infects T cells and dendritic cells.

20

Overt AIDS is marked by a__

Overt AIDS is marked by a low CD4+ T-cell count.

21

TF: Plasma HIV RNA load is the most accurate predictor of disease progression.

true Plasma HIV RNA load is the most accurate predictor of disease progression.

22

The diagnosis of HIV is made by screening for __ and __ If this is positive, confirmation is made by using __. After treatment, the ___ of plasma HIV RNA predicts long-term outcome.

The diagnosis of HIV is made by screening for anti-HIV-1 and antiHIV-2 antibodies. If this is positive, confirmation is made by using Western blot analysis. After treatment, the nadir of plasma HIV RNA predicts long-term outcome.

23

T/F HIV testing is recommended for anyone diagnosed with a STI or at risk for STIs.

HIV testing is recommended for anyone diagnosed with a STI or at risk for STIs.

24

The most common intrascrotal pathologic process in AIDS patients is ___.

The most common intrascrotal pathologic process in AIDS patients is testicular atrophy.

25

T/F Voiding dysfunction is common in patients with advanced HIV infection.

true Voiding dysfunction is common in patients with advanced HIV infection.

26

. Urinary calculi have been associated with, most notably, protease inhibitors such as ___ These stones are soluble at an ___

. Urinary calculi have been associated with, most notably, protease inhibitors such as indinavir. These stones are soluble at an acidic pH

27

HIV-associated nephropathy is a glomerular disease that often presents as ___

HIV-associated nephropathy is a glomerular disease that often presents as proteinuria.

28

___  is essential for all forms of Kaposi sarcoma.

Human herpesvirus 8 is essential for all forms of Kaposi sarcoma.

29

HIV protease inhibitors are also potent antiangiogenic molecules and are useful in treating ___. However, localized lesions may be treated by irradiation, laser, cryotherapy, or intralesional injections of antineoplastic drugs. Corticosteroids should/should not be used to treat the lesions.

HIV protease inhibitors are also potent antiangiogenic molecules and are useful in treating Kaposi sarcoma. However, localized lesions may be treated by irradiation, laser, cryotherapy, or intralesional injections of antineoplastic drugs. Corticosteroids should not be used to treat the lesions.

30

Patients with HIV are at particular increased risk for Kaposi sarcoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Kaposi sarcoma presents as a ___ , reflecting the presence of __ ___ ___ and ___

Patients with HIV are at particular increased risk for Kaposi sarcoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Kaposi sarcoma presents as a raised, firm, indurated purplish plaque, reflecting the presence of abundant blood vessels, extravasated erythrocytes, and siderophages.