Stem Cells Flashcards Preview

Biochemistry MBS > Stem Cells > Flashcards

Flashcards in Stem Cells Deck (18):
1

somatic cells

cell of the body other than the egg or sperm

2

somatic cell nuclear transfer

-the transfer of a somatic cell nucleus into an egg from which the nucleus has been removed
-

3

stem cells

-cells that have the ability to divide for indefinite periods, self-renew, and give rise to specialized cells (and tissues)

4

totipotent/omnipotent/pluripotent

-unlimited capacity to specialize into any and all cell types or tissues
-technically pluripotent should not be synonymous but has become so in common use

5

multipotent

-capable of giving rise to many/several cell types

6

progenitor cell

-cells that are committed to differentiate
-they are not self-renewing in the classic sense but are still highly useful in regenerative medicine

7

clone

-an organism, colony, or group of organisms (or colony of cells) derived from a single organism or cell by asexual reproduction, all having identical genetic constitution

8

reproductive cloning

-cloning to produce a pregnancy that results in the birth of a baby

9

therapeutic cloning

-cloning to produce an embryo for the collection of ES cells for treatment of disease, mechanistic studies, or toxicology studies

10

somatic cell nuclear transfer
-why is this important

-isolate a mature, unfertilized egg (secondary oocyte), suck out the nucleus, and replace it with a donor diploid nucleus from some other cell type. Grow the egg into an addult
-this is important because it is how clones are made

11

uses for cultured pluripotent stem cells

-drug development
-tissues/cells for therapy
-experiments to study development and gene control

12

for what diseases is regenerative medicine hopeful in treating

-parkinsons
-diabetes
-beta thallasemia
-CVD
-spinal column injuries
-firs tspinal cord trials failed but CVD is showing come promise

13

what is the source of ES cells in an embryo?

-ICM

14

3 main sources of stem cells

-Es cells from the ICM of the blastocyst
-fetal umbilical cord blood
-adult tissues, including induced pluripotent stem cells

15

what properties does a good stem cell have?

-survive liquid nitrogen freezing for many years
-survive and proliferate indefinitely in cell culture
-maintain stable and normal DNA and chromosomes
-differentiate predictably into many types of cells

16

advantages of ES cells

-lower cost
-unlimited number
-pathogen free
-do not cause cancers
-immune rejection reduced

17

adult stem cells

-found in most tissues
-few, if any ethical concerns
-can be isolated from cadavers
-iPS cells are as plastic as ES cells

18

reprogramming cells to become iPS cells

-transfect/infect cells with 4-6 transcription factors
-these transcription factors will reset their genetic program to the ES cell state
-will need to rename these induced totipotent stem cells