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Flashcards in Diabetes Deck (6):

long term complications of diabetes

-diabetic eye: hemorrhages, cataracts and glaucoma, microaneurisms (proliferative retinoathy), new growth and fragile vessels
-diabetic feet:
-diabetic kidney: makes up a large percentage of kidney disease
-diabetic heart: CHD risk is 4 times greater


alpha glucosidase inhibitors
-used for

-to treat type 2 diabetes
-slows downs the enzyme that turns carbohydrates into glucose, this results in a smaller rise in blood sugar


where exactly is glucose absorbed

-90% is in the first section of the kidney via the SGLT2 receptor
-10% is in the seond part of the kidney via the SGLT2


what control insulin production and secretion

-incretins: hormones produced in the digestive track GLP1 and GIP


glp1 acts on secretion via

ion channels
-binding of GLP1 to its receptor triggers the conversion of ATP to cAMP intracellularly which activates PKA
-PKA activates a K channel which lets K leave the cell and activate a Ca membrane channel
-this channel allows Ca influx which causes the exocytosis of insulin granules


types of diabetes

1: loss of beta cells
2: insulin resistance/ beta cell failure
-other (MODY, endocrine disease)