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1

two types of functional groups found on the anomeric carbon of straight chain sugars

aldehydes and ketones

2

glycation
-clinical significance

the process of a protein reaction and combining with a sugar without the presence of a cofactor such as an activated sugar
-Hb can be glycated when diabetics dont take their insulin and take too much sugar and can be used in a test to see if people have been compliant

3

polysaccharide, glycolipis, and glycoprotein bond formation requirements

-this process is called glycosylation and it differs from glycation in that cofactors are needed to carry out the reaction
-these are in the form of activated sugar nucleotides

4

glycogen structure

-series of alpha 1,4 linked glucose molecules with alpha 1,6 branches
-the end at which sugars get added is called the nonreducing end

5

glycosaminoglycans GAGs
-what are they
-most common

long, linear sugars with disaccharide repeats that are negatively charged (sulfates)
-can be free or attached to protein
-chondroitin sulfate is the most common

6

chondroitin sulfate

bone, cartilage, cornea formation

7

keratan sulfate

cornea, connective tissue

8

dermatan sulfate

binds LDL to plasma walls

9

heparan sulfate

aortic wall, basement membrane

10

heparin

anticoagulant

11

hyaluronic acid

cell migration, lubricant, (not covalently attached to protein)

12

proteoglycans

-provide part of the ground substance for tissue epithelia, bind growth factors/cytokines and provide cushioning in joints

13

enzymatic glycosylation
-where does it occur

-outside of the cell or oriented outside of the cell except in O-GlcNac
- can be O linked or N linked with a specificity determined by the nucleotide sugar and the substrate
-sugar processing occurs as proteins traffic from the ER through the golgi

14

what enzymes are involved in I cell disease

-there are multiple!!
-results in the accumulation of many biosynthetic materials

15

glycoproteins are critical for...

-biological recognition
-mannose-6-P as a lysosomal targeting signal, influenza or helicobacter, leucocyte adhesion deficiency 2

16

what does lactase insufficiency cause when lactose is consumed

-fluid to rush into the colon causing watery diarrhea and the formation of H2 gas

17

the different mechanisms in which monosaccharides can enter the cell

simple diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport

18

Glut 4
-type of transport
-found where
-regulation
-difference between glut 2

-facilitated transporter
-important in fat and muscle
-not found in the liver **
-regulated by insulin
-glut 2 is not regulated by insulin

19

affect of insulin on blood glucose in type 1 diabetics

-blood glucose does not go down nearly as much

20

insulins action on glucose metabolism

-decreases blood glucose by increasing uptake in muscle and adipose tissue (not in the liver)
-increases glycolysis in the liver, increasing acetyl-CoA formation
-decreases gluconeogenic reactions
-decreases glycogen breakdown and increases synthesis

21

purpose of forming G6P from Glu

-locks it into the cell so the exterior glucose concentration doesnt pull it back out of the cell
-this is done by hexokinase everywhere and by glucokinase in hepatocytes
-glucokinase in pancreatic beta cells regulates glycolysis and hence insulin secretion (MODY)

22

glucokinase vs hexokinsae concentrations

-glucokinase is 100 times more concentrated in liver cells than hexokinase is anywhere else in the body
-this makes sure that the liver does not miss any glucose molecules passing through it

23

4 different things you can do with glucose in a general sense

-glycogen synthesis
-glycolysis
-PPS
-glucuronides

24

niacin deficiency

-vitamin B3
-dermatitis
-diarrhea
-dementia (pellagra)

25

thiamine deficiency

-VitB1
-opthalmoplegia
-gait difficulties
-confusion
-beri beri
-wernicke korsakoff

26

riboflavin

-VB12
-cheilosis and glossitis

27

lipopoate

-targeted by arsenic (pyruvate and a ketoglutarate dehydrogenase)

28

ratios of NAD vs NADH and NADPH vs NADP

-NAD+ >> NADH
-NADPH >> NADP
-basically, what the cell wants are NADPH and NAD, these are what are the cell uses as substrates in important reaction
-however, there are reaction within the cell that can convert NADH and NADP back to their original states
-it is an oxidation reduction cycle

29

regulated enzymes of glycolysis

-hexokinase/glucokinase
-phosphofructokinase 1 (PFK1)
-pyruvate kinase

30

ATP producing enzymes of glycolysis

-phosphoglycerate kinase (1,3BPG to 3PG)
-pyruvate kinase (PEP to pyruvate)