DNA Replication/ Cell Cycle Flashcards Preview

Biochemistry MBS > DNA Replication/ Cell Cycle > Flashcards

Flashcards in DNA Replication/ Cell Cycle Deck (41):
1

Important points of DNA-protein interactions:
typ of bonding
location
what structures are fitting together
requirement

-Hydrogen bonding between amino acid side chain and the nitrogenous bases and backbone is crucial
-most contacts are in the DNA major groove
-alpha helices of the protein associate with the major groove of B-form DNA (site specification)
-Multiple DNA binding domains necessary for site specificity

2

origins of replication

where DNA synthesis begins, the mammal genome has many of these

3

Simian virus 40 (SV40):
use in research
why
outcome of research

-model system for DNA replication in humans
-with the exception of t-ag, the saem proteins are used to synth SV40 and human DNA
-identification of many of the proteins involved in human DNA replication

4

T-ag

-helicase encoded by SV40
-these is a specific binding site for this protein at SV40's origin of replication

5

Bloom's syndrome

high risk of developing malignancies. caused by a deficinency in the helicase protein

6

Werner's Syndrome

defective helicase causes premature aging

7

helicase

seperate the strands of duplex DNA during replication

8

topoisomerases during DNA replication

undo the supercoiling during replication

9

Unwinding:
importance

-exposes the bases in the origin of replication
-additional enzymes gain access to the exposed bases in order to copy the strand

10

DNA primase

synthesizes an approx 10nt RNA primer. this is necessary to innitiate DNA synth

11

DNA polymerase:
job
reaction type
bond formed

adds nucleotides to the 3' carbon of the growing chain, synthesizing the chain in the 5' to 3' direction. This process is achieved by catalyzing the nucleophilic attack of the preceeding 3'-OH of deoxyribose. a phosphodiester bond is then formed and a pyrophosphate released

12

Polymerase epsilon

forms the leading strand of newly synthesized DNA in the 5'-3' direction. This is a high fidelity polymerase in that it has 3' to 5' exonuclease activity.

13

Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen PCNA

clamps the polymerases onto the DNA template

14

Replication factor C

helps load polimerase delta and epsilon onto the DNA

15

overall direction of growth of the lagging strand

3' to 5' although the individual okazaki fragments are synthesized 5' to 3'

16

pol alpha primase

plays a key role in the synthesis of okazaki fragments since a new RNA primer must be laid down before the synthesis of each okazaki fragment. It is also required to initiate leading strand synthesis.

17

removal of RNA primer and suturing of okazaki fragments

RNA primers are removed by a 5' to 3' exonuclease and the holes filled in by pol delta and finaly bonded to the okazaki fragments by DNA ligase

18

DNA ligase:
function
process (mechanism)

seals single stranded nicks in the daughter strand. is activated when ATP donates AMP to form an enzyme-AMP complex. AMP is then transferred to the 5' phosphate on the nick, activating the phosphate so it can form a covalent linkage with the adjacent 3'-OH

19

pol gama

responsible for mitochondrial DNA synthesis

20

pol beta

plays a role in repair events

21

AZT:
how it works
effectiveness
problems

-nucleotide anologue that inhibits the reverse trancriptase of the HIV.
-effectiveness limited due to toxicity (it is a substrate for pol gama, disrupting mitochondrial DNA synthesis)

22

acyclovir

nucleotide anologue which inhibits the DNA pol present in the herpes virus

23

Cell Cycle subdivisions

G1, S, G2, M
can also enter quiscent stage called G0

24

S phase

-when DNA replication occurs

25

G1

long period of growth preceeding the replication of DNA.
Begin immediately after mitosis

26

G2

additional time of growth before entering mitosis

27

cyclin-dependent kinase

regulate the progression of a cell through the cell cycle. composed of a cylcin and a kinase

28

p53:
function
oncological classification

-protein that functions at the G1/S checkpoint and helps to prevent the cel from entering S phase if the cell has damaged DNA. DNA can either be repaired and cell will enter S or the cell will apoptose
-tumor supressor

29

Li-Fraumeni Syndrome:
cause
effect

-inheritance of a mutated form of p53
-at risk for developing tumors at multiple sites

30

mismatch repair:
-when
-identifying the incorrect nucleotide
-identifying daughter strand
-communication of associated enzymes
-process after incision

-occurs when DNA is incorrectly replicated
- the mismatch is recognized by an enzyme, Mut S
-templates strands have methylated adenine residues in d(GATC) sites and these sites are recognized by Mut H which upon recognition makes an incision in the strand
-it is thought the Mut L acts as a protein-protein interface between Mut H and Mut S
-error containing strand removed by a helicase and exonuclease and the empty space is refilled by a DNA pol, an SSB and DNA ligase

31

trinucleotide repeat repair

- thought to be done via the mismatch repair pathway
-Thought to may have something to do with the high number of trinucleotide repeats associated with the huntingtons disease mutation

32

excision repair:
function
steps
detail of each step (proteins involved)

-removal of a faulty DNA segment and its replacement by DNA synthesis
-steps in E.coli: incision, excision, resynthesis, ligation
-Incision: the uvrABC complex cleaves the damaged DNAon either side of the lesion creating a small fragment
-excision: fragment is removed from the complementary strand, leaving a small gap
-resynthesis: gap is filled by DNA polymerase 1 using the 3'-OH end of the nicked strand as a primer. DNA ligase then joins the strands

33

xeroderma pigmentosum

-results from biochemical defects in the excision repair system
-afflicted generally die from metastases of malignant skin tumors before 30
-examples of the importance of the DNA repair process

34

removal of uracil from DNA:
why necessary

-cytosine spontaneously deaminates to form uracil. this causes a mutation in the gene
-this uracil is recognised by uracil-DNA glycosidase which hydrolyzes the glycosidic bond between uracil and deoxyribose
-this formas an AP (apurinic/apyrimidinic) site which is recognized by an AP endonuclease which removes the nitrogenous base-free backbone, initiating an excisionr repair-like process

35

substitutions, deletions, and insertions

substitutions: swapping of a base pair
deletion: deletion of a base pair
insertion: insertion of a base pair

36

chemical mutagens

-environmental factors that produce genetic mutations
-many are substances that react with DNA and cause modifications of bases. some cause changes in base pairing specificity

37

deamination

nitrous acid reacts with bases that contain amino groups and can convert cytosine and adenine into uracil and hypoxanthine, respectively

38

alkylation

-major site for this reaction is the N7 position on guanine
-methylation at this postion cause labilization of the N-glycosidic linkage in DNA and leads to the loss of guanine residues from DNA

39

Polycyclic hydrocarbons:
-what and how
-examples
-mutation type

-have the capacity to intercalate between adjacent basse pairs in DNA leading to insertion or deletion of one or more base pairs
-proflavin and ethidium bromide
-result in frameshift muations

40

radiation

causes the removal of electrons from molecules causing alterations in the gene structure

41

pol alpha primase
pol beta
pol delta
pol epsilon
pol gama

-pol alpha primase: laying down the RNA primers for leading strand and okazaki fragments
-beta: plays a role in repair events
-delta:required for lagging strand synthesis
-epsilon: required for leading strand synthesis
-gama: replicates mitochondrial DNA