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Flashcards in Stomach Deck (54):
1

Function of the stomach

Accumulation of ingested food

2

How much food can an adult stomach hold

2-3l

3

What affects the size and position of the stomach

Body shape
Degree of distension
Posture

4

What are the 5 parts of the stomach

Cardia - surrounds superior opening
Fundus - rounded portion superior to and left of the cardia
Body - large central portion inferior to the fundus
Antrum - rounded portion inferior to the body and left of the pylorus
Pylorus - connects to duodenum

5

What is the Z line

Line where the mucosa changes from oesophageal to gastric

6

Where is the oesophagogastric junction

Left of T11 vertebra

7

What is the inferior oesophageal sphincter

Diaphragmatic musculature forming the oesophageal hiatus (hole in diaphragm that oesophagus passes through) immediately superior to the Z line

8

What prevents acid reflux as well as the inferior oesophageal sphincter

Cardiac notch

9

What occurs as a result of frequent acid reflux

Heartburn
Ulceration
Barrett's oesophagus

10

What is the pyloric sphincter

Thickened coat of circular muscle at the pyloric end of the stomach

11

Function of the pyloric sphincter

Controls discharge of the stomach contents through the pyloric orifice into the duodenum

12

How does the gastric mucosa exist when the stomach is empty

In longitudinal folds called rugae and a gastric canal temporarily forms between the gastric folds along the lesser curvature

13

What does the gastric canal allow

Saliva and other fluids to pass along to the pylorus

14

What cells produce mucus

Neck cells

15

What cells produce acid

Parietal cells

16

What cells produce pepsinogen

Chief cells

17

What cells produce gastrin

G cells

18

What cells are found in the cardia

Neck cells

19

What cells are found in the fundus and body

Neck cells
Parietal cells
Chief cells

20

What cells are found in the pylorus

Neck cells
G cells

21

Where do peptic ulcers commonly occur

Antrum
Lesser curvature

22

What does perforation of peptic ulcers lead to

Spillage of gastric contents into the peritoneal cavity

23

Origin of the coeliac trunk

Abdominal aorta

24

What arises from the coeliac trunk

Left gastric artery
Splenic artery
Common hepatic artery

25

Blood supply of lesser curvature

Coeliac trunk -> left gastric
Coeliac trunk -> common hepatic -> right gastric

26

Blood supply of the greater curvature

Coeliac trunk -> splenic -> left gastro-omental
Coeliac trunk -> common hepatic -> gastroduodenal -> right gastro-omental

27

Blood supply of the fundus and body

Coeliac trunk -> splenic -> posterior gastric
Coeliac trunk -> splenic -> short gastric

28

Venous supply of the stomach

Left gastric vein
Right gastric vein
Short gastric vein
Left gastro-omental vein
Right gastro-omental vein
(All follow course of respective arteries)

29

What does the left gastric vein drain into

Hepatic portal vein

30

What does the right gastric vein drain into

Hepatic portal vein

31

What does the short gastric vein drain into

Splenic vein

32

What forms the hepatic portal vein

Formed when the splenic vein and superior mesenteric vein join

33

What does the left gastro-omental vein drain into

Splenic vein

34

What does the right gastro-omental vein drain into

Superior mesenteric vein

35

What causes acute gastritis

NSAIDs
Alcohol

36

What occurs in acute gastritis

Exfoliation of surface epithelial cells and decreased secretion of protective mucus

37

What causes chronic gastritis

Helicobacter pylori

38

What occurs in chronic gastritis

Inflammatory changes in the mucosa result in atrophy and epithelial metaplasia

39

What abdominal regions does the stomach occupy

Epigastric
Umbilical

40

Where does the greater curvature run from and to

From cardiac orifice to pyloric antrum

41

What is the junction between the body and pylorus

Angular incision (most inferior part of the lesser curvature)

42

What extrinsic forces control entry of material into the stomach

At the oesophageal hiatus, the right crus of the diaphragm exerts pressure on the oesophageal wall
In the non eating state, the oesophagus is collapsed
The oesophagus enters the stomach at an angle so when the stomach is full, entry to the stomach is closed off

43

When does the stomach empty

When intragastric pressure overcomes the resistance of the pylorus (normally contracted)

44

Parasympathetic innervation

Posterior vagal trunks which are derived from the vagus nerve

45

Sympathetic innervation

Coeliac plexus (T6-9)

46

What do the gastric lymphatic vessels drain into

Gastric lymph nodes
Gastro-omental lymph nodes

47

What do the efferent vessels from the gastric and gastro-omental lymph nodes drain into

Coeliac lymph nodes

48

Where are the coeliac lymph nodes

Posterior abdominal wall

49

What is GORD

Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease
A disorder affecting the lower oesophageal sphincter

50

Main causes of GORD

Dysfunction of the lower oesophageal sphincter
Delayed gastric emptying
Hiatus hernia

51

What is a hiatus hernia

Part of the stomach protrudes into the chest though oesophageal hiatus in the diaphragm

52

Types of hiatus hernia

Sliding
Rolling

53

Describe a sliding hiatus hernia and give the common complication

Lower oesophageal sphincter slides superiorly
Reflux as the diaphragm is no longer reinforcing the sphincter

54

Describe a rolling hiatus hernia

Lower oesophageal sphincter remains in place but a part of the stomach herniates into the chest next to it