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Flashcards in Week 9 Deck (32):
1

Functions of colonic bacteria

Synthesise vitamins - vitamin K, vitamin B12 and thiamine
Prevent pathogen colonisation
Kill non indigenous bacteria
Stimulate development of MALT
Stimulate production of natural antibiotics

2

Adaptations of bacteria to survive in gut

Protective endospores e.g clostridium tetani
Pilli
Slime biofilm

3

Examples of obligate aerobes

Pseudomonas
Mycobacterium tuberculosis

4

Examples of obligate anaerobes

Bacteroides fragilis
Clostridia spp

5

Examples of facultative anaerobes

Gram negative enteric bacteria
Gram positive skin bacteria

6

What are facultative anaerobes

Prefer oxygen but can live without it

7

What are the anaerobic parts of the GI tract

Deep in taste buds
Biofilm between teeth
Gingival crevice areas
On tongue
Small bowel
Colon

8

Gram positive gut cocci

Staphylococci
Streptococci
Enterococci

9

Gram negative gut cocci

Neisseria meningitis
Neisseria gonorrhoea

10

Gram positive gut bacilli

Clostridia
Corynebacterium
Bacillus
Lactobacillus
Mycobacterium tuberculosis

11

Gram negative enteric bacilli

Bacteroides fragilis (anaerobic)
E Coli
Pseudomonas
Proteus
Klebsiella
Salmonella
Shigella
Vibrio cholerae
Helicobacter pylori

12

Gram negative non enteric bacilli

Haemophilus influenzae
Bordetella pertussis - whooping cough
Brucella - from unpasteurised milk

13

What bacteria are found in the mouth and what can they cause

Anaerobic bacteria
Candida albicans - oral candidiasis
Streptococci mutans - gingivitis
Staph aureus - parotitis

14

What can cause cancrum oris

If Malnourished, Dehydrated, Immunocompromised or Systemically unwell
Mouth bacteria can cause tissue destruction

15

Causative organisms of tonsillitis

70% viral - adenovirus, rhinovirus, EBV
30% bacterial - streptococci pyogenes

16

What is Ludwig's angina

Bacteria from tonsils drain into cervical lymph nodes and infect neck tissue causing laryngeal oedema (medical emergency)

17

What is a quinsy

Peritonsillar abscess between one tonsil and the wall of the throat
Very painful and causes stridor and dysphasia

18

Treatment for quinsy

Let pus out
Need to be careful not to cut internal carotid artery

19

Treatment of oral or oesophageal candidiasis

Amphotericin lozenges

20

Sites of MRSA screening swabs (where staph aureus is)

Nose
Throat
Perineum

21

Examples of throat bacteria and conditions they cause

Strep viridans - infective endocarditis
Strep pyogenes - tonsillitis
Strep pneumoniae - CAP
Staph
Neisseria meningitidis
H influenzae
Lactobacilli
Corynebacterium diphtheria
Candida albicans

22

Examples of colonic bacteria

Bacteroides fragilis/oris/melaninogenicus
E. coli
Enterococcus faecalis
Gram negative enteric bacilli

23

What is a perianal abscess

Infection of anal glands leading to abscess around anus

24

Mortality of faecal peritonitis

50%

25

Risks of gut surgery

High risk of wound infection leading to wound dehiscence

26

How do you reduce risk of surgical wound infection in gut surgery

Antibiotic prophylaxis - metronidazole with gentamicin/cephalosporin

27

Clostridium species and what they cause

Tetani - tetanus
Dificile - pseudomembranous colitis
Perfringens - gas/wet gangrene

28

Clinical features of tetanus

Lock jaw - produces risus sardonicus (sustained facial spasm)
Opisthotonos (backward arching of head, neck and spine)

29

Describe gas/wet gangrene and treatment

Anaerobic digestion of glucose produces ethanol (wet) and CO2 (gas) leading to gas in tissue
Immediate amputation

30

How is the vaginal mucosa kept acidic

Lactobacillus concerts glycogen to lactic acid

31

Bacteria on perineal skin

E. coli
Enterococcus faecalis
Lactobacillus

32

Describe travellers diarrhoea

Severe watery diarrhoea with no inflammation
Causative organisms is Enterotoxinogenic E. coli (ETEC)