Flashcards in Strengths and Weaknesses of NEP Deck (26):
Political weakness: strengthened class divisions
The new bourgeoisie appeared, more people moved into the kulak bracket due to prosperity, Nepmen, small scale private ownership/enterprise
Agricultural weakness: recovery uneven
The Central and Southern regions recovered quicker, fruit and vegetables recovered dramatically better than grain.
Agricultural weakness: peasants hid possessions
For example this hid grain stocks in order to be taxed less meaning the state procured less.
Agricultural weakness: The economy was not secure
The Procurement Crisis in 1927-28 was due to not enough grain being aquired meaning that the state had to resort to the War Communism-like Urals-Siberian method.
Agricultural weakness: grain exports low
Grain exports were only a quarter of 1913 level meaning less revenue for the USSR.
Agricultural weakness: farming methods still primitive
Eg. strip system, three field rotation, not mechanised, done by hand - too inefficient/small scale to support industrialisation
Political weakness: the party had little control over countryside
They were thinly spread, only 1595 in Orel and 3320 in Kursk
Agricultural strength: some recovery was being made
In Volgoda cultivated land increased by 25% and herds by almost a third in 1925-28
Industrial weakness: production not up to pre-war levels
In most cases
Industrial weakness: low wages
In state owned industry wages were 50% lower than pre war.
Industrial weakness: inefficiency
Heavy industries were particularly inefficient and heavily subsidised.
Industrial weakness: Industries heavily subsidised
Supreme Council of National Economy was set up to profitable industries eg. textile subsidised less efficient industries - not a recipe for long term growth.
Industrial weakness: national income
Western estimate is 93% of pre-war levels, although Russian is 119%
Industrial weakness: trade
foreign trade only a third of 1913
Industrial weakness: technology
The gap in technological advances worsened with the US and Europe etc.
Agricultural weakness: grain amount in million tonnes
4500 in 1913, only 3600 in 28
Industrial strength/weakness: Coal/oil/steel production
Coal and oil production increased from 1913 but were nowhere near what they could have been. Coal and steel were still not 1913 levels in 1925
Agriculture was weak: quote from Stalin 1928
It is a 'weak agricultural country'
Weakness: E. H. Carr and Western historians
NEP couldn't work in long run due to unstable nature of internal/world market and technological backwardness
Weakness: Russian economists
NEP didn't allow economy to breathe/expand, didn't allocate resources effectively.
Social Weakness: peasants were hostile to it
There were also social problems such as drunkenness and hooliganism
Political/social strength: Stability
Brought stability and let party develop their hold, particularly in towns/urban areas.
Ind/Ag weakness: Scissors crisis
Ag recovered more rapidly than ind so were paid lower prices, meaning they began to produce less, whereas ind was paid more.
Agricultural weakness: lack of incentive
Lacked incentive to produce surplus as it'd be seized by state at low price.
Agricultural weakness: economic quote from Stalin in 1928
Farming is 'the most insecure, the most primitive, the most undeveloped form of economic organisation'