Strengths and Weaknesses of NEP Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Strengths and Weaknesses of NEP Deck (26):
1

Political weakness: strengthened class divisions

The new bourgeoisie appeared, more people moved into the kulak bracket due to prosperity, Nepmen, small scale private ownership/enterprise

2

Agricultural weakness: recovery uneven

The Central and Southern regions recovered quicker, fruit and vegetables recovered dramatically better than grain.

3

Agricultural weakness: peasants hid possessions

For example this hid grain stocks in order to be taxed less meaning the state procured less.

4

Agricultural weakness: The economy was not secure

The Procurement Crisis in 1927-28 was due to not enough grain being aquired meaning that the state had to resort to the War Communism-like Urals-Siberian method.

5

Agricultural weakness: grain exports low

Grain exports were only a quarter of 1913 level meaning less revenue for the USSR.

6

Agricultural weakness: farming methods still primitive

Eg. strip system, three field rotation, not mechanised, done by hand - too inefficient/small scale to support industrialisation

7

Political weakness: the party had little control over countryside

They were thinly spread, only 1595 in Orel and 3320 in Kursk

8

Agricultural strength: some recovery was being made

In Volgoda cultivated land increased by 25% and herds by almost a third in 1925-28

9

Industrial weakness: production not up to pre-war levels

In most cases

10

Industrial weakness: low wages

In state owned industry wages were 50% lower than pre war.

11

Industrial weakness: inefficiency

Heavy industries were particularly inefficient and heavily subsidised.

12

Industrial weakness: Industries heavily subsidised

Supreme Council of National Economy was set up to profitable industries eg. textile subsidised less efficient industries - not a recipe for long term growth.

13

Industrial weakness: national income

Western estimate is 93% of pre-war levels, although Russian is 119%

14

Industrial weakness: trade

foreign trade only a third of 1913

15

Industrial weakness: technology

The gap in technological advances worsened with the US and Europe etc.

16

Agricultural weakness: grain amount in million tonnes

4500 in 1913, only 3600 in 28

17

Industrial strength/weakness: Coal/oil/steel production

Coal and oil production increased from 1913 but were nowhere near what they could have been. Coal and steel were still not 1913 levels in 1925

18

Agriculture was weak: quote from Stalin 1928

It is a 'weak agricultural country'

19

Weakness: E. H. Carr and Western historians

NEP couldn't work in long run due to unstable nature of internal/world market and technological backwardness

20

Weakness: Russian economists

NEP didn't allow economy to breathe/expand, didn't allocate resources effectively.

21

Social Weakness: peasants were hostile to it

There were also social problems such as drunkenness and hooliganism

22

Political/social strength: Stability

Brought stability and let party develop their hold, particularly in towns/urban areas.

23

Ind/Ag weakness: Scissors crisis

Ag recovered more rapidly than ind so were paid lower prices, meaning they began to produce less, whereas ind was paid more.

24

Agricultural weakness: lack of incentive

Lacked incentive to produce surplus as it'd be seized by state at low price.

25

Agricultural weakness: economic quote from Stalin in 1928

Farming is 'the most insecure, the most primitive, the most undeveloped form of economic organisation'

26

Agricultural weakness: grain collected by gov

Falling by 1928