Flashcards in Strengths and Weaknesses of the Terror Deck (14):
Political: Party recruits
Less than a quarter of communist party recruits since 1920 survived the purges although this meant people would be loyal to Stalin
Political: Stalin's rivals
Bukharin, Rykov, Zinoviev and Kamenev all tried and shot. Stalin all purged 'Old Bolsheviks' because they knew he wasn't prominent during the revolution and had all challenged him during 1934 to cause unite/stability.
Army Weakness: removal of officers
23,000 officers shot or dismissed but many reinstated
Army Weakness: inexperience
1/4 of a million new officers recruited to replace the dismissals so they lacked experience and training, leading the failures in the first months of the war in 1941. Three quarters of officers had been in their post less than a year at the start of war.
Army Weakness: purge of generals
Tukhachevsky was innovative, modernising and thought of improving tactics but he and 7 other generals were arrested and shot in 1937
Army Weakness: military coup
Stalin was convinced there was a plot to overthrow him: the Red Army had been in talks with Germans about tactics, and he attached war commissars to army to avid a coup
Political Weakness: Overy
'restore political domination over armed forces at the expense of military modernisers'
Social weakness: the Yezhov years 1936-8
Over 7 million arrested and 1 million executed.
Social weakness: deaths in 1936-39
10-15million died from torture, execution, exile or labour camps, not including the famine.
Social weakness: Conquest 1936-8
les than 10% of those arrested/sent to camps survived
Social W/Ind S: Kolyma Camp
-45 degrees, but rich in gold, gold needed to exchange directly with West for technology/machinery
Industrial Weakness: Initiative
Stifled initiative and innovative ideas within industry and armies and removed factory managers/skilled workers who could effectively work the machinery as well as scientists and specialists.
Political Strength: siege mentality
The harshness/severity caused a siege mentality which benefited in light of war