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Flashcards in Reformation Key Terms Deck (44):
1

Sola fide

'just shall live by faith alone' one of Luther's beliefs

2

Sola scriptura

Luther's belief that only the Scriptures and not papal editions of the Bible were free from error.

3

Sacraments

The Catholic Church believed in 7 and that they should (nearly) all be followed, however Luther believed in only two, baptism and Eucharist.

4

Frederick the Wise

Also known as Frederick the Elector of Saxony, a prince in Wittenberg who supported Luther and arranged for his kidnap following the Diet of Worms where Charles v banned him from the empire.

5

Pope Leo X

Ecommunicated Luther.
Commissioned Tetzel to sell indulgences.
Commissioned a new indulgence in 1517 to rebuild St Peter's Basilica.

6

Thoman Müntzer

Expelled from Zwickau and arrived in Allstedt advocating adult baptism, communal use of property and use of violence to reform society. He encouraged peasants to revolt against authority.

7

Hans Hut

practised Anabaptism, familiarism (free love) and common possession of goods in Ausburg. His followers were called Hutterites

8

Melchoir Hoffman

Proclaimed the world would end in 1533.

9

Institutes of the Christian Religion 1536

Calvin's book which outlined his ideas:
- sola fide
- double predestination.
- clerical marriage acceptable.
- indulgences, holy relics, pilgrimages rejected.
- only two sacraments, baptism and Eucharist

10

In Praise of Folly

Erasmus' book.
Criticised Popes for being all 'ceremonial and display' 'teaching people is too much like hard work' 'praying is a waste of time'

11

Peter Canisius

A Jesuit who stayed in Germany 1549-80.
Founded first Jesuit college there in Ingolstadt and helped found 18 more as well as help German rulers accept the decrees from the Council of Trent.
Gained the support of Ferdinand I (the Holy Roman Emperor)

12

Ad fontes

'to the sources' used by humanists

13

Conciliarism

Pope Paul III's fear that a council will challenge and undermine the Pope's authority.

14

Millenarianism

A golden age was coming.
Christ was going to appear on earth and sweep away the ungodly (priests and landlords) and raise up the oppressed and create a classless society.

15

Juan Mariani

Jesuit trained

16

Contarini

A reforming cardinal?

17

Pope Pius V

Encouraged including Jesuits, Theatines, Barnabites and Capuchins

18

Juan Mariani

Jesuit trained

19

Contarini

A reforming cardinal?

20

Pope Pius V

Encouraged including Jesuits, Theatines, Barnabites and Capuchins

21

Julius II

Described 'warrior pope' by Christine Shaw.
Put himself at head of his troops in Northern Italy.
Subject of Erasmus' pamphlet 'Julius Exclusus'.
Unhappy that a statue depicted him with a bible not sword.

22

Alexander VI

Bribed cardinals to vote for him.
Had 8 children by 3 women before becoming pope: meant to remain celibate.
Nepotism: made 8 family members cardinals.

23

1st Council of Trent session

Reaffirmed doctrines.
Seven sacraments 'absolutely necessary'.

24

2nd Council of Trent session

Denied Protestant demands, eg. Councils should have authority over pope.
Transubstantiation affirmed.
Increased power of Pope

25

3rd Council of Trent session

Left Pope to decide on the Index and catechism.

26

Pope Paul III

Founded Society of Jesus 1540.
Set up Council of Trent.
Implemented Inquisition

27

Julius III

His reign included nepotism but ordered the second Council of Trent.

28

Paul IV

Persecuted liberal cardinals eg. Pole.
Founded the Roman Inquisition.

29

Roman Index of Prohibited Books

10,000 books burned in Venice in 1558

30

Lainez and Salmeron

Jesuits at Council of Trent.
Excelled on the question of justification which was one of the main problems caused by Luther.

31

Francis Xavier

Made a saint for his work.
Went to India, Goa and Japan.
Baptised 10,000 by 1544.

32

Libertines

Perrin supported Servetus.
Lost his place as Syndic in 1555.
All four syndics then supported Calvin.
Perrin was tortured and executed.
His land was sold for money to fund Genevan Academy

33

Servetus

Condemned infant baptism and the Doctrine of the Trinity.
Burned at stake.
Calvin was the expert prosecution witness at his trial.

34

Ameaux

Calvin made him walk in public begging for mercy off him and God when the Council said he should apologise in private.

35

Ecclesiastical Ordinances.

Accepted by council in 1541.
Contained the Church organisation.

36

Le Grabeau.

Pastors criticised each other to raise the standards.

37

The Consistory.

Banned dancing, whistling etc.
Given power to excommunicate sinners 1555.

38

Genevan Academy.

Calvin said theology was 'the heart of all study'.
By 1564 300 in Academy and 1000 in college.
'The great days of the college only lasted a few years'.
Trained to be effective missionaries and preachers.

39

Donation of Constantine

Written 4th century.
Claims popes were given authority over Italy by the Emperor Constantine.
Exposed as a fraud by Valla written 8th century.
Showed that the terminology used didn't exist when it was written.

40

Notes on the New Testament.

Written by Valla.
Influenced Erasmus.

41

Archbishop of Mainz

Bought his office as well as permission to hold two other diocese

42

Archbishop of Sens

Never entered his cathedral in his lifetime.

43

Handbook of a Christian Soldier

Offered advice to Charles V.
Emphasised simplicity and knowledge of bible.
Could be interpreted as critical and undermining.

44

Pope Paul IV

Created index.
Persecuted liberal cardinals eg. Contarini