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Flashcards in Study guide exam 3 Deck (111):
1

What are the focal areas of a performance appraisal instrument?

1. Goal focus(results)-prevent crimes, finish shift without injury, have arrests and citations stand up in court
2. task focus- crime prevention, arrest procedures, court testimony, use of vehicle
3. trait focus- honesty, courtesy, responsibility, dependibility, cooperation
4. competency focus- report writing skills, driving skills, public speaking skills, knowledge of the law

2

What are the different employee comparison methods? Be prepared to be tested via the presentation of definitions and/or scenarios.

rank order, paired comparison, forced distribution

3

What are the different, common rating errors? Be prepared to be tested via the presentation of definitions and/or scenarios.

1. halo or horns errors(single attribute or overall impression affects ratings)
2. range restriction errors: leniency(high ratings), strictness(low ratings), central tendency(rated in middle)
3. Location errors: proximity(rating of one dimension affects dimension rating right after), contrast

4

What are the steps in developing an employee training system?

-determine training needs by performing a needs analysis
-develop training program
---establish goals and objectives
---choose best training method
---prepare the training
---motive employees
---conduct the training
-evaluate training success

5

What are the orderly steps with respect to conducting the different types of needs analyses? (i.e., in what order should you conduct the different types of needs analyses?)

1. Organizational analysis 2. task analysis 3. person analysis

6

What strategies ensure effective transfer of training?

-Use realistic training programs
-Have opportunities to practice work-related behavior during the training (i.e., Overlearning)
-Provide employees with the opportunity to apply their training
-Ensure management is supportive of the training
-Have employees set goals

7

What are the different criteria used during the evaluation of training results? Be prepared to be tested via the presentation of definitions and/or scenarios.

Content validity
Employee reactions
Employee learning
Application of training
Business impact
Return on investment

8

What are the different types of self-esteem? Be prepared to be tested via the presentation of definitions and/or scenarios.

chronic
situational(also known as self-efficacy)
socially influenced

9

What are the different types of needs proposed by David McClelland? Be prepared to be tested via the presentation of definitions and/or scenarios.

need for achievement
need for affiliation
need for power

10

Which need theory has three levels of needs and allows individuals to skip levels?

Clayton Alderfer's ERG theory (existence, relatedness, growth

11

According to two-factor theory, what are the elements related to the job context that when absent cause lack of motivation and job dissatisfaction known as?

Hygienes

12

When does feedback best increase performance; when is feedback most effective?

-feedback best increases performance when it is positive and informational rather than negative and controlling-feedback is most effective if it occurs soon after the performance of the behavior?????

13

What are the components of the equity theory? Be prepared to be tested via the presentation of definitions and/or scenarios.

inputs
outputs
input/output ratio

14

Which theory asserts that an employee’s motivation is related to how fairly she believes she is being treated compared to other employees?

equity theory???

15

What are the different forms of organizational justice? Be prepared to be tested via the presentation of definitions and/or scenarios.

procedural justice
distributive justice
interactional justice

16

The extent to which an employee identifies with and is involved with an organization.

what is the definition of organizational commitment?

17

Which theory asserts that "new" employees who work with highly satisfied and highly motivated "old" employees are more likely to be highly satisfied and highly motivated themselves?

social learning theory

18

What method to meet growth and challenge entails an employee performing from time to time several different jobs in an organization?

job rotation

19

What are the important purposes of performance appraisals?

1. feedback and training(65%)
2. personnel decisions
-raises(86%)
-promotions(45%)
-termination decisions(30%)
3. research
4. legal reasons or certification

20

Feedback is obtained from whom in a 360-degree feedback system?

obtained from multiple sources such as clients, supervisors, subordinates, and peers

21

What are the different types of rating scales? Be prepared to be tested via the presentation of definitions and/or scenarios.

performative based
normative based
frequency based

22

is the systematic acquisition of skills, rules, concepts, or attitudes that result in improved performance.

definition of training

23

what are the different types of needs analyses and what are the respective purposes of the different types of needs analyses?

organizational analysis
task analysis
person analysis

24

What are the different types of training methods and what are the respective purposes/goals of the different types of training methods? (i.e., what do the different training methods allow trainees to do?)

1. classroom training
-lecture to acquire knowledge(live or video)
-case studies to apply knowledge
-simulation exercises to practice new skills
-role play and behavioral modeling to learn interpersonal skills
2. distance learning
-books and videos
-programmed instruction(web-based instruction(e-learning), computer-based instruction)
3. on the job training
-modeling
-job rotation
-apprentice training
-coaching
-mentoring
-performance appraisal

25

What are the concepts/ learning principles behind programmed instruction?


-Self-paced
-Trainee is actively involved in the learning
-Material is presented in small units

26

What are the problems associated with using coaching as a training method?

-Not all employees are good coaches
-Coaching can lower the coach’s work productivity
-Pass through programs and corporate coaches can alleviate problems

27

With respect to the evaluation of training results, what does the research design entail and what does the research design allow a researcher to control for during the evaluation?

--A control group consists of employees who will be tested and treated in the same manner as the experimental group, except that they will not receive training. The control group will be subjected to the same policy, machinery, and economic conditions as the employees in the experimental group who receive training.
--It allows a researcher to look at the training effect after controlling for outside factors.

28

the internal force that drives a worker to action; this determines whether one will want to do the job properly

what is the definition of work motivation

29

What are the different strategies used when attempting to increase employee self-esteem? Be prepared to be tested via the presentation of definitions and/or scenarios.

self-esteem workshops
experience with success
--self-fulfilling prophecy
--galatea effect
supervisor behavior
--pygmalion effect
--Gohem effect

30

Which component of the job characteristics theory involves an employee being able to connect her efforts with an outcome?

task identification

31

According to two-factor theory, what are the factors that are related to the job content that when present lead to motivation and job satisfaction known as?

motivators

32

What are the qualities of effective goals?

-specific
-measurable
-attainable but difficult
-relevant
-time bound

33

What are the different individual and organizational financial incentive plans? Be prepared to be tested via the presentation of definitions and/or scenarios.

1. individual incentive plans
--pay for performance
--merit pay
2. organizational incentive plans
--profit sharing
--gainsharing
--stock options

34

What are the components of the expectancy theory? Be prepared to be tested via the presentation of definitions and/or scenarios.

expectancy
instrumentality
valence

35

What does the social leaning theory assert with respect to work motivation and job satisfaction?

-Employees observe the levels of motivation and satisfaction of other employees and then model those levels.
-If the veteran employees are highly motivated and satisfied with their jobs and their employer, new employees will adopt and model those same attitudes. The reverse is also true.

36

the attitude an employee has towards his/her job

What is a definition of job satisfaction?

37

What factors and strategies can organizations implement in order to increase attendance; what are some methods for dealing with absenteeism?

Increasing attendance by:
-having consequences for Missing work
-reducing employee stress
-reducing illness

dealing with absenteeism:
-rewards for attending(financial incentives, paid time-off programs, recognition programs)
-discipline for not attending
-having clear policy and record keeping

38

What method to meet growth and challenge entails employees being given more tasks to do at one time?

job enlargement

39

employees are ranked from best to worst(employee comparison methods)

rank order

40

a group of employees to be ranked are compared one at a time(employee comparison methods

paird comparison

41

a predetermined percentage of employees are placed into a number of performance categories(employee comparison methods

forced distribution

42

single attribute or an overall impression affects the ratings made on each relevant job dimension

halo or horns errors

43

all employees given high ratings, regardless of their actual levels of performance(under range restriction)

leniency

44

all employees given low ratings, regardless of their actual levels of performance(under range restriction)

strictness

45

all employees rated in the middle of the scale, regardless of their actual levels of performance(under range restriction)

central tendency

46

rating of one dimension affects the rating made on the dimension that immediately follows it on the rating scale(location errors)

proximity

47

rating one person receives influenced by the performance of a previously evaluated person(location errors)

contrast

48

assessing the extent to which the training content reflects the KSAO's required to perform the job

content validity

49

assessing the extent to which employees enjoyed the training and learned from the training

employee reactions

50

assessing the extent to which actual learning took place and actual KSAO's were acquired from the training

employee learning

51

assessing the extent to which employees can apply the learned material

application of training

52

assessing the extent to which the training impacts the business and the manner in which the overall company is affected by the training(the reaching of company goals)

business impact

53

assessing the extent to which the organization actually saves money due to the training after accounting for training costs

return on investment

54

person's overall feeling about himself

chronic self-esteem

55

person's feelings about himself in a particular situation; also known as

situational; self efficacy self-esteem

56

person's feeling about himself based on the expectations of others

socially influenced self-esteem

57

motivated by jobs that are challenging and over which we have control

need for achievement

58

motivated by jobs in which we can work with and help other people

need for affiliation

59

motivated by a desire to influence others rather than simply to succeed

need for power

60

personal elements that we put into our jobs(equity theory)

inputs(under equity theory)

61

elements that we receive from our jobs(equity theory)

outputs

62

ratio of how much employees believe they put into their jobs to how much they believe they get from their jobs(equity theory)

input/output ratio

63

what is it when employees' inputs are greater than their outputs(underpayment)?

-work less hard
-become more selfish
-lower job satisfaction

64

when employees' outputs are greater than their inputs(overpayment)

-no guilt feelings
-work harder
-become more team oriented

65

postulates that if employees perceive they are being treated fairly, they will more likely to be satisfied with their jobs and motivated to do well

organizational justice

66

the perceived fairness of the processes and methods used to arrive at the decision

procedural justice

67

the perceived fairness of the actual decision made in an organization

distributive justice

68

the perceived fairness of the interpersonal treatment employees receive

interactional justice

69

extent to which expectations have been met

performance based

70

comparison to other employees

normative based

71

how often

frequency based

72

systematic aquisition of skills, rules, concepts, or attitudes that result in improved performance

training

73

planned effort by an organization to facilitate the learning of job-related behaviors on the parts of its employees

training

74

the purpose of an organizational analysis is to determine the following:

-factors that either facilitate or inhibit training effectiveness
-goals the organization wants to achieve
-the extent to which training will help achieve those goals
-the organizations ability to conduct training(finances, physical space, time)
-the extent to which employees are willing and able to be trained(ability, commitment, motivation, stress)

75

purpose of a task analysis is to identify

-tasks performed by each employee
-conditions under which tasks are performed
-KSAO's needed to perform tasks under those conditions

76

for task analysis, how and when KSAOs will be learned need to be determined

-KSAO's expected at time-of-hire
-ksaos easily taugh on the job and during formal training program
-ksaos requiring no training

77

the purpose of a person analysis is

to determine which employees need training and in which areas:
-performance appraisal scores
-surveys
-interviews
-skill and knowledge tests
-critical indicidents

78

lecture to acquire knowledge(classroom training)

usually effective when accompanied by such techniques as simulations and role-plays; develop training outline, create handouts, supporting materials DVDs and role-play exercises; preparation is long; give handouts at the end

79

the members of a small group each read a case that is typical of those encountered on the job; group then discusses the case, identifies possible solutions, evaluations the advantages and disadv of each solution to problem; actual situations or hypothetical; living cases are best; effective in applying knowledge and learning problem-solving skills( conducting classroom training)

case studies to apply knowledge

80

simulation-allows trainee to practice newly learned skill; offers advantage of allowing the trainee to work with the equipment under actual working conditions without cosequences of mistakes; work best when the physically and psychologically simulate the actual job conditions; effective for learning how to use new equipment and software(conducting classroom training)

simulations to practice new skills

81

allows the trainee to perform necessary interpersonal skills by acting out simulated roles; under conducting classroom training

role play to practice interpersonal skills

82

the trainee role-play ideal behavior rather than behavior they might normally perform

behavior modeling to practice interpersonal skills

83

the trainee role-play ideal behavior rather than behavior they might normally perform; under conducting classroom training

behavior modeling to practice interpersonal skills

84

categories or distance learning

asynchronous and synchronous

85

employees complete the training at their own pace and at the time and place of their choosing

asynchronous

86

employees complete the training at the same time and the same place although they may be in different physical locations; webinars, webcasts, and teleconferences are common methods

synchronous

87

used in crafts and trades; individual takes a minimum of 144 hours of formal class work each year and works with an expert for several(usually four) years to learn a particular trade and perhaps becomes eligible to join a trade union

learning through apprentice training; on the job training

88

experience employee works with new employee

learning through coaching; on the job training

89

less formal than coaching; those people are typically older and at least one level or position above the mentee

learning through mentoring; on the job training

90

supervisors meets with an employee to discuss his strengths and weaknesses on the job; once weaknesses have been identified, the supervisor and the employee can determine what training methods would best help the employee to improve his job knowledge or skill

learning through performance appraisal; on the job training

91

individual performs as well or as poorly as he expects to perform

self-fulfilling prophacy

92

high self-expectations result in higher levels of performance

galatea effect

93

when expectations communicated to an individual affects that an individual's performance; people act in a manner consistent with beliefs communicated

pygmalion effect

94

when negative expectations of an individual cause a decrease in that individual's performance

gohem effect

95

individual incentive plans

pay for performance and merit pay

96

a system in which employees are paid on the basis of how much they individually produce

pay for performance

97

an incentive plan in which employees receive pay bonuses based on performance appraisal scores

merit pay

98

organizational incentive plans

profit sharing, gainsharing, stock options

99

a group incentive system that provides employees with a percentage of profits above a certain amount

profit sharing

100

a group incentive system in which employees are paid a bonus based on improvements in group productivity above the established baseline

gainsharing

101

a group incentive method in which employees are given the option of buying stock in the future at the price of the stock when the options were granted

stock options

102

theory that motivation is a function of expectancy, instrumentality, and valence

expectancy theory

103

the perceived relationship between the amount of effort an employee puts in and the resulting outcome

expectancy

104

the extent to which the outcome of a worker's performance, if noticed, results in a particular consequence

instrumentality

105

the extent to which an employee values a particular consequence

valence

106

what are some strategies used to get trainees to attend training?

1. require attendance on the clock
2. voluntary
-on the clock
-just in time rather than just in case
-make training interesting
-focus on core competencies
-increase employee buy-in
-provide incentives(food, certificates, college credit, pay increase
- reduce stress associated with attending

107

when learning by modeling others, what are the necessary characteristics of the model

successful
status
similarity

108

when learning by modeling others, what are the necessary characteristics of the observer

attention
retention
reproduction skills

109

what has research shown regarding the costs of turnover?

???

110

-This is the planned effort by an organization to facilitate the learning of job-related behaviors on the part of its employees.

definition of training

111

what are the personality variables that are associated with the tendency to be satisfied or dissatisfied with ones job?

-emotional stability
-self-esteem
-self-efficacy
-locus of control (internal and external)