Flashcards in Study guide exam 3 Deck (111):
What are the focal areas of a performance appraisal instrument?
1. Goal focus(results)-prevent crimes, finish shift without injury, have arrests and citations stand up in court
2. task focus- crime prevention, arrest procedures, court testimony, use of vehicle
3. trait focus- honesty, courtesy, responsibility, dependibility, cooperation
4. competency focus- report writing skills, driving skills, public speaking skills, knowledge of the law
What are the different employee comparison methods? Be prepared to be tested via the presentation of definitions and/or scenarios.
rank order, paired comparison, forced distribution
What are the different, common rating errors? Be prepared to be tested via the presentation of definitions and/or scenarios.
1. halo or horns errors(single attribute or overall impression affects ratings)
2. range restriction errors: leniency(high ratings), strictness(low ratings), central tendency(rated in middle)
3. Location errors: proximity(rating of one dimension affects dimension rating right after), contrast
What are the steps in developing an employee training system?
-determine training needs by performing a needs analysis
-develop training program
---establish goals and objectives
---choose best training method
---prepare the training
---conduct the training
-evaluate training success
What are the orderly steps with respect to conducting the different types of needs analyses? (i.e., in what order should you conduct the different types of needs analyses?)
1. Organizational analysis 2. task analysis 3. person analysis
What strategies ensure effective transfer of training?
-Use realistic training programs
-Have opportunities to practice work-related behavior during the training (i.e., Overlearning)
-Provide employees with the opportunity to apply their training
-Ensure management is supportive of the training
-Have employees set goals
What are the different criteria used during the evaluation of training results? Be prepared to be tested via the presentation of definitions and/or scenarios.
Application of training
Return on investment
What are the different types of self-esteem? Be prepared to be tested via the presentation of definitions and/or scenarios.
situational(also known as self-efficacy)
What are the different types of needs proposed by David McClelland? Be prepared to be tested via the presentation of definitions and/or scenarios.
need for achievement
need for affiliation
need for power
Which need theory has three levels of needs and allows individuals to skip levels?
Clayton Alderfer's ERG theory (existence, relatedness, growth
According to two-factor theory, what are the elements related to the job context that when absent cause lack of motivation and job dissatisfaction known as?
When does feedback best increase performance; when is feedback most effective?
-feedback best increases performance when it is positive and informational rather than negative and controlling-feedback is most effective if it occurs soon after the performance of the behavior?????
What are the components of the equity theory? Be prepared to be tested via the presentation of definitions and/or scenarios.
Which theory asserts that an employee’s motivation is related to how fairly she believes she is being treated compared to other employees?
What are the different forms of organizational justice? Be prepared to be tested via the presentation of definitions and/or scenarios.
The extent to which an employee identifies with and is involved with an organization.
what is the definition of organizational commitment?
Which theory asserts that "new" employees who work with highly satisfied and highly motivated "old" employees are more likely to be highly satisfied and highly motivated themselves?
social learning theory
What method to meet growth and challenge entails an employee performing from time to time several different jobs in an organization?
What are the important purposes of performance appraisals?
1. feedback and training(65%)
2. personnel decisions
4. legal reasons or certification
Feedback is obtained from whom in a 360-degree feedback system?
obtained from multiple sources such as clients, supervisors, subordinates, and peers
What are the different types of rating scales? Be prepared to be tested via the presentation of definitions and/or scenarios.
is the systematic acquisition of skills, rules, concepts, or attitudes that result in improved performance.
definition of training
what are the different types of needs analyses and what are the respective purposes of the different types of needs analyses?
What are the different types of training methods and what are the respective purposes/goals of the different types of training methods? (i.e., what do the different training methods allow trainees to do?)
1. classroom training
-lecture to acquire knowledge(live or video)
-case studies to apply knowledge
-simulation exercises to practice new skills
-role play and behavioral modeling to learn interpersonal skills
2. distance learning
-books and videos
-programmed instruction(web-based instruction(e-learning), computer-based instruction)
3. on the job training
What are the concepts/ learning principles behind programmed instruction?
-Trainee is actively involved in the learning
-Material is presented in small units
What are the problems associated with using coaching as a training method?
-Not all employees are good coaches
-Coaching can lower the coach’s work productivity
-Pass through programs and corporate coaches can alleviate problems
With respect to the evaluation of training results, what does the research design entail and what does the research design allow a researcher to control for during the evaluation?
--A control group consists of employees who will be tested and treated in the same manner as the experimental group, except that they will not receive training. The control group will be subjected to the same policy, machinery, and economic conditions as the employees in the experimental group who receive training.
--It allows a researcher to look at the training effect after controlling for outside factors.
the internal force that drives a worker to action; this determines whether one will want to do the job properly
what is the definition of work motivation
What are the different strategies used when attempting to increase employee self-esteem? Be prepared to be tested via the presentation of definitions and/or scenarios.
experience with success
Which component of the job characteristics theory involves an employee being able to connect her efforts with an outcome?
According to two-factor theory, what are the factors that are related to the job content that when present lead to motivation and job satisfaction known as?
What are the qualities of effective goals?
-attainable but difficult
What are the different individual and organizational financial incentive plans? Be prepared to be tested via the presentation of definitions and/or scenarios.
1. individual incentive plans
--pay for performance
2. organizational incentive plans
What are the components of the expectancy theory? Be prepared to be tested via the presentation of definitions and/or scenarios.
What does the social leaning theory assert with respect to work motivation and job satisfaction?
-Employees observe the levels of motivation and satisfaction of other employees and then model those levels.
-If the veteran employees are highly motivated and satisfied with their jobs and their employer, new employees will adopt and model those same attitudes. The reverse is also true.
the attitude an employee has towards his/her job
What is a definition of job satisfaction?
What factors and strategies can organizations implement in order to increase attendance; what are some methods for dealing with absenteeism?
Increasing attendance by:
-having consequences for Missing work
-reducing employee stress
dealing with absenteeism:
-rewards for attending(financial incentives, paid time-off programs, recognition programs)
-discipline for not attending
-having clear policy and record keeping
What method to meet growth and challenge entails employees being given more tasks to do at one time?
employees are ranked from best to worst(employee comparison methods)
a group of employees to be ranked are compared one at a time(employee comparison methods
a predetermined percentage of employees are placed into a number of performance categories(employee comparison methods
single attribute or an overall impression affects the ratings made on each relevant job dimension
halo or horns errors
all employees given high ratings, regardless of their actual levels of performance(under range restriction)
all employees given low ratings, regardless of their actual levels of performance(under range restriction)
all employees rated in the middle of the scale, regardless of their actual levels of performance(under range restriction)
rating of one dimension affects the rating made on the dimension that immediately follows it on the rating scale(location errors)
rating one person receives influenced by the performance of a previously evaluated person(location errors)
assessing the extent to which the training content reflects the KSAO's required to perform the job
assessing the extent to which employees enjoyed the training and learned from the training
assessing the extent to which actual learning took place and actual KSAO's were acquired from the training
assessing the extent to which employees can apply the learned material
application of training
assessing the extent to which the training impacts the business and the manner in which the overall company is affected by the training(the reaching of company goals)
assessing the extent to which the organization actually saves money due to the training after accounting for training costs
return on investment
person's overall feeling about himself
person's feelings about himself in a particular situation; also known as
situational; self efficacy self-esteem
person's feeling about himself based on the expectations of others
socially influenced self-esteem
motivated by jobs that are challenging and over which we have control
need for achievement
motivated by jobs in which we can work with and help other people
need for affiliation
motivated by a desire to influence others rather than simply to succeed
need for power
personal elements that we put into our jobs(equity theory)
inputs(under equity theory)
elements that we receive from our jobs(equity theory)
ratio of how much employees believe they put into their jobs to how much they believe they get from their jobs(equity theory)
what is it when employees' inputs are greater than their outputs(underpayment)?
-work less hard
-become more selfish
-lower job satisfaction
when employees' outputs are greater than their inputs(overpayment)
-no guilt feelings
-become more team oriented
postulates that if employees perceive they are being treated fairly, they will more likely to be satisfied with their jobs and motivated to do well
the perceived fairness of the processes and methods used to arrive at the decision
the perceived fairness of the actual decision made in an organization
the perceived fairness of the interpersonal treatment employees receive
extent to which expectations have been met
comparison to other employees
systematic aquisition of skills, rules, concepts, or attitudes that result in improved performance
planned effort by an organization to facilitate the learning of job-related behaviors on the parts of its employees
the purpose of an organizational analysis is to determine the following:
-factors that either facilitate or inhibit training effectiveness
-goals the organization wants to achieve
-the extent to which training will help achieve those goals
-the organizations ability to conduct training(finances, physical space, time)
-the extent to which employees are willing and able to be trained(ability, commitment, motivation, stress)
purpose of a task analysis is to identify
-tasks performed by each employee
-conditions under which tasks are performed
-KSAO's needed to perform tasks under those conditions
for task analysis, how and when KSAOs will be learned need to be determined
-KSAO's expected at time-of-hire
-ksaos easily taugh on the job and during formal training program
-ksaos requiring no training
the purpose of a person analysis is
to determine which employees need training and in which areas:
-performance appraisal scores
-skill and knowledge tests
lecture to acquire knowledge(classroom training)
usually effective when accompanied by such techniques as simulations and role-plays; develop training outline, create handouts, supporting materials DVDs and role-play exercises; preparation is long; give handouts at the end
the members of a small group each read a case that is typical of those encountered on the job; group then discusses the case, identifies possible solutions, evaluations the advantages and disadv of each solution to problem; actual situations or hypothetical; living cases are best; effective in applying knowledge and learning problem-solving skills( conducting classroom training)
case studies to apply knowledge
simulation-allows trainee to practice newly learned skill; offers advantage of allowing the trainee to work with the equipment under actual working conditions without cosequences of mistakes; work best when the physically and psychologically simulate the actual job conditions; effective for learning how to use new equipment and software(conducting classroom training)
simulations to practice new skills
allows the trainee to perform necessary interpersonal skills by acting out simulated roles; under conducting classroom training
role play to practice interpersonal skills
the trainee role-play ideal behavior rather than behavior they might normally perform
behavior modeling to practice interpersonal skills
the trainee role-play ideal behavior rather than behavior they might normally perform; under conducting classroom training
behavior modeling to practice interpersonal skills
categories or distance learning
asynchronous and synchronous
employees complete the training at their own pace and at the time and place of their choosing
employees complete the training at the same time and the same place although they may be in different physical locations; webinars, webcasts, and teleconferences are common methods
used in crafts and trades; individual takes a minimum of 144 hours of formal class work each year and works with an expert for several(usually four) years to learn a particular trade and perhaps becomes eligible to join a trade union
learning through apprentice training; on the job training
experience employee works with new employee
learning through coaching; on the job training
less formal than coaching; those people are typically older and at least one level or position above the mentee
learning through mentoring; on the job training
supervisors meets with an employee to discuss his strengths and weaknesses on the job; once weaknesses have been identified, the supervisor and the employee can determine what training methods would best help the employee to improve his job knowledge or skill
learning through performance appraisal; on the job training
individual performs as well or as poorly as he expects to perform
high self-expectations result in higher levels of performance
when expectations communicated to an individual affects that an individual's performance; people act in a manner consistent with beliefs communicated
when negative expectations of an individual cause a decrease in that individual's performance
individual incentive plans
pay for performance and merit pay
a system in which employees are paid on the basis of how much they individually produce
pay for performance
an incentive plan in which employees receive pay bonuses based on performance appraisal scores
organizational incentive plans
profit sharing, gainsharing, stock options
a group incentive system that provides employees with a percentage of profits above a certain amount
a group incentive system in which employees are paid a bonus based on improvements in group productivity above the established baseline
a group incentive method in which employees are given the option of buying stock in the future at the price of the stock when the options were granted
theory that motivation is a function of expectancy, instrumentality, and valence
the perceived relationship between the amount of effort an employee puts in and the resulting outcome
the extent to which the outcome of a worker's performance, if noticed, results in a particular consequence
the extent to which an employee values a particular consequence
what are some strategies used to get trainees to attend training?
1. require attendance on the clock
-on the clock
-just in time rather than just in case
-make training interesting
-focus on core competencies
-increase employee buy-in
-provide incentives(food, certificates, college credit, pay increase
- reduce stress associated with attending
when learning by modeling others, what are the necessary characteristics of the model
when learning by modeling others, what are the necessary characteristics of the observer
what has research shown regarding the costs of turnover?
-This is the planned effort by an organization to facilitate the learning of job-related behaviors on the part of its employees.
definition of training