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Flashcards in Final Exam Study Guide Deck (102):
1

Which type of communication flows directly from one employee to her supervisor?

upward communication

2

Which type of communication flows directly from a supervisor to employee?

downward communication

3

What are the different grapevine categories?

isolates, liaisons, dead-enders

4

employees who receive less than half of the information

isolates

5

employees who both receive most of the information and pass it on to others

liaisons

6

employees who receive most of the information but seldom pass it on

dead-enders

7

What factor, referred to as interference, affects the proper reception of a message and that is defined as actual noise, appropriateness of the channel, bias, feelings about the person communicating, mood, and perceived motives?

Definition of noise

8

What are some examples of nonverbal communication/ nonverbal cues?

Body Language
-eye contact
-expressions
-posture
-arm and leg use
-motion
-touching

Use of space
Use of time

9

What are our tendencies when we have too much information?

level
sharpen
assimilate

10

unimportant information is removed

level

11

interesting and unusual information if kept

sharpen

12

information is modified to fit existing beliefs and knowledge

assimilate

13

What are the different listening styles? Be prepared to be tested via the presentation of definitions and/or scenarios.

leisure
inclusive
stylistic
technical
empathetic
nonconforming

14

people who listen only for words that indicate pleasure

leisure

15

people who listen for the main idea and meaning behind any communication

inclusive

16

people who listen to the way the communication is presented

stylistic

17

people who listen to the details during the communication

technical

18

people who pay attention to the feelings and other nonverbal cues of the speaker during the communication

empathic

19

people who attend to information that is consistent with their beliefs and ways of thinking

nonconforming

20

Research and literature reviews have identified certain traits that differentiate leaders from non-leaders (leader emergence). What traits are differentiating traits?

-intelligence
-openness to experience
-extraversion
-conscientiousness
-neuroticism/emotional stability
-high self-monitoring

21

Regarding orientation, what are some examples/characteristics of a task versus person orientation?

task-oriented leaders: theory X leaders

Person-oriented leaders: Theory Y leaders
Leaders who are high in both task and person orientations are most effective as leaders and will have high performance, low turnover, and low grievance rate

22

set goals and give orders

task-oriented leaders: theory X leaders

23

act in a warm, supportive manner an show concern for the employees
-believe employees are intrinsically

person-oriented Leaders: theory Y leaders

24

A factor that is related to Fiedler's Contingency Model is the favorableness of a situation. According to this theory, the favorableness of a situation is determined by what three variables?

task structuredness
leader position power
leader-member relations

25

the extent to which tasks have clear goals and problems can be solved; the more structured the task, the more favorable the situation

task structuredness

26

the extent to which a leader, by nature of his or her position, has the power to reward and punish subordinates; the greater the position or legitimate power, the more favorable the sutiation

leader position power

27

the extent to which subordinates like a leader; the more subordinates like their leader, the more favorable the situation will be

leader-member relations

28

Based on the Path Goal theory, House (1971) believes that a leader's behavior will be accepted by subordinates only to the extent to which the behavior does what?

help the subordinates achieve their goals

29

Which theory concentrates on the interactions between leaders and subordinates or leader–member exchanges?

leader-member exchange LMX theory

30

With respect to the types of leadership, what are the characteristics of transactional leadership versus transformational leadership?

Transactional Leadership- leadership style in which the leader focuses on task-oriented behaviors(setting goals, monitoring performance, and providing consequence for success or failure)
-Transformational leadership- visionary leadership in which the leader changes the nature and goals of an organization

Transformational leaders are visionary, charismatic, inspirational, confident, and optimistic; and they challenge the status-quo and carefully analyze problems

31

What form of leadership requires that leaders reflect on their own ethics, core beliefs, and values rather than leading by copying the leadership style of others?

authentic leadership

32

What criterion for being considered a group refers to a condition when something affects one member of the group it affects all members?

corresponding effects (interdependence)

33

What term refers to the extent to which group members like and trust one another?

group cohesiveness

34

What are the different group roles members can assume?

task oriented roles
social-oriented roles
individual role

35

involve behaviors such as offering new ideas, coordinating activities, finding new information

task-oriented roles

36

involve encouraging cohesiveness and participation

social-oriented roles

37

a third category that includes blocking group activities, calling attention to oneself, and avoiding group interaction; seldom result in higher group productivity

individual role

38

Considers the effect on individual performance when people work together on a task. States that individuals in a group often exert less individual effort than they would if they were not in a group.

What is a definition of social loafing according to the social loafing theory?

39

What is a situation in which a group becomes so cohesive and like-minded that it makes poor decisions by ignoring information relevant to the decision-making process known as?

groupthink

40

Which source of conflict results when geographical boundaries or lines of authority are unclear?

jurisdictional ambiguity

41

What is the conflict resolution strategy that involves a neutral third party who operates as facilitator and who helps both sides reach a mutually agreeable solution known as?

mediation

42

What methods facilitate upward communication?

Attitude surveys
Focus groups
Exit interviews
Suggestion/complaint boxes
-allows for the communication of opinions, complaints, suggestions, etc. to management in a designated area and in an anonymous fashion at virtually any time.
Third Party facilitators
-liaison
-ombudsperson

43

What are the different types of grapevine patterns?

single-strand pattern
gossip pattern
probability pattern
cluster pattern

44

information is passed on from one person to another

single strand

45

information is passed on by one person to a selected group

gossip

46

information is passed on by one person to a selected group who then randomly passes on the information

probability

47

information is passed on by one person to a selected group who then selectively passes on the information

cluster

48

the exchange of a message across a communication channel from one person to another

What is a definition of interpersonal communication?

49

What is a definition of paralanguage? Be prepared to be tested via the presentation of definitions and/or scenarios.

Rate of speech
loudness
intonation
amount of talking
voice pitch
pauses

50

What do artifacts include? Be prepared to be tested via the presentation of definitions and/or scenarios.

our office
-decor
-desk placement
what we wear
-clothing
-accessories
-hair styles
-tattoos
the care we drive
the house we live in

51

What are our reactions to information overload? Be prepared to be tested via the presentation of definitions and/or scenarios.

omission
error
queuing
escape
use of a gatekeeper
use of multiple channels

52

involves the conscious decision not to process certain types of information

omission

53

involves processing all information but processing some of it incorrectly

error

54

involves prioritizing and organizing information into an order in which it will be handled; placing the communication into a waiting line

queuing

55

involves an employee beginning to miss a lot of work or leaving the organization to reduce stress

escape

56

involves the use of a person who screens potential communication for someone else and allows only the most important information to pass through

use of a gatekeeper

57

involves directing some of the communication to another person

use of multiple channels

58

What factors affect the way in which a received message is interpreted?

-listening skills
-listening style
-emotional state
-cognitive ability
-bias

59

Research by McClelland and Burnham (1976) and McClelland and Boyatzis (1982) has demonstrated that high performance managers have a "leadership motive pattern." High performance managers have what type of leadership motive pattern?

High need for achievement
high need for power
low need for affiliation

60

Hogan (1989) has identified characteristics associated with poor leadership. What are characteristics associated with poor leadership?

lack of training
cognitive deficiencies
personality problems

61

What are the behavioral styles and respective ideal climates according to the IMPACT theory of leadership?

leadership style:
-information
-magnetic
-position affiliation
-coercove
-tactical

Ideal climate:
-ignorance
-despair
-instability
-anxiety
-crisis
-disorganization

62

What are the four behavioral leadership styles proposed by House ‘s Path Goal theory?

instrumental style
supportive style
participate style
achievement-oriented style

63

a leadership style in which the leaders influence others by virtue of their appointed or elected authority

position

64

effective in a climate of _____, an organizational climate in which people are not sure what to do

instability

65

a style of leadership in which the leader leads through knowledge and information

information

66

effective in a climate of _____, an organizational climate in which important information is not available

ignorance

67

a style of leadership in which the leader has influence because of his or her charismatic personality

magnetic

68

effective in a climate of ____, an organizational climate characterized by low morale

despair

69

a leadership style in which the individual leads by caring about others

affiliation

70

effective in a climate of _____, an organizational climate in which worry predominates

anxiety

71

a leadership style in which the individual leads by controlling reward and punishment

coercive

72

effective in a climate of ____, a critical time or climate for an organization in which the outcome to a decision has extreme consequences

crisis

73

a leadership style in which a person leads through organization and strategy

tactical

74

effective climate of ______________, a climate in which the organization has the necessary knowledge/resources bus does not know how to efficiently use the knowledge/resources

disorganization

75

plans, organizes, controls

instrumental style

76

shows concern for employees

supportive style

77

shares information and lets employees participate

participative style

78

sets challenging goals and rewards increases in performance

achievement-oriented style

79

What are the different forms of power a leader can obtain?

expert power
legitimate power
reward power
coercive power
referent power

80

power that individuals have because they have knowledge

expert power

81

the power that individuals have because of their elected or appointed position

legitimate power

82

leadership power that exists to the extent that the leader has the ability and authority to provide rewards

reward power

83

leadership power that comes from the leader's capacity to punish others

coercive power

84

leadership power that exists when followers can identify with a leader and the leader's goals and when followers have positive feelings the leader

referent power

85

Visionary charismatic managers are often known as what type of leaders?

transformational leaders

86

What are the criteria for being a group?

multiple members
group rewards
corresponding effects(interdependence)
common goals

87

2 or more people that perceive themselves as a group

multiple members

88

process must be beneficial and valued; the group must provide rewards to its members

group rewards

89

anything that happens to one member of the group affects every other member

corresponding effects(interdependence)

90

the members of the group must share a common goal

common goals

91

What are the reasons why people join groups?

psychological needs
survival needs
commonality
situational reasons

92

What term refers to the extent to which group members are similar?

group homogeneity

93

-the negative effects that occur when a person performs a task in the presence of others
-social facilitation: the positive effects that occur when a person performs a task in the presence of others

What is a definition of social inhibition; what is a definition social facilitation?

94

What are truths regarding the effects of individual dominance in a group?

When one member of a group dominates the group
If the leader or group member asserting his/her dominance has an accurate solution to a problem, is intelligent, and conscientiousness; the group will probably perform at a high level.

95

What type of team is also called cross-functional teams and consists of representatives from various departments (functions) within an organization teams consist of representatives from various departments within an organization?

parallel teams

96

What are the different reactions to conflict/ different conflict styles?

avoiding style
accommodating style
forcing style
collaborating style
compromising style

97

What is the conflict resolution strategy in which a neutral third party who operates as a judge and who listens to all parties involved in a conflict and then makes a decision called?

arbitration; under third party intervention

98

the conflict style of a person who reacts to conflict by pretending that it doesnt exist

avoiding style; withdrawal and trianlging

99

the conflict style of a person who tends to respond to conflict by giving in to the other person

Accommodating style; also known as the "giving-in" style, "smoothing and conciliation" style

100

the conflict style of a person who responds to conflict by always trying to win

forcing style; winning at all costs

101

the conflict style of a person who wants a conflict resolved in such a way that both sides get what they want

collaborating style; win win style

102

a style of resolving conflicts in which an individual allows each side to get some of what it wants

compromising style; negotiation and bargaining, give and take