Flashcards in Final Exam Study Guide Deck (102):
Which type of communication flows directly from one employee to her supervisor?
Which type of communication flows directly from a supervisor to employee?
What are the different grapevine categories?
isolates, liaisons, dead-enders
employees who receive less than half of the information
employees who both receive most of the information and pass it on to others
employees who receive most of the information but seldom pass it on
What factor, referred to as interference, affects the proper reception of a message and that is defined as actual noise, appropriateness of the channel, bias, feelings about the person communicating, mood, and perceived motives?
Definition of noise
What are some examples of nonverbal communication/ nonverbal cues?
-arm and leg use
Use of space
Use of time
What are our tendencies when we have too much information?
unimportant information is removed
interesting and unusual information if kept
information is modified to fit existing beliefs and knowledge
What are the different listening styles? Be prepared to be tested via the presentation of definitions and/or scenarios.
people who listen only for words that indicate pleasure
people who listen for the main idea and meaning behind any communication
people who listen to the way the communication is presented
people who listen to the details during the communication
people who pay attention to the feelings and other nonverbal cues of the speaker during the communication
people who attend to information that is consistent with their beliefs and ways of thinking
Research and literature reviews have identified certain traits that differentiate leaders from non-leaders (leader emergence). What traits are differentiating traits?
-openness to experience
Regarding orientation, what are some examples/characteristics of a task versus person orientation?
task-oriented leaders: theory X leaders
Person-oriented leaders: Theory Y leaders
Leaders who are high in both task and person orientations are most effective as leaders and will have high performance, low turnover, and low grievance rate
set goals and give orders
task-oriented leaders: theory X leaders
act in a warm, supportive manner an show concern for the employees
-believe employees are intrinsically
person-oriented Leaders: theory Y leaders
A factor that is related to Fiedler's Contingency Model is the favorableness of a situation. According to this theory, the favorableness of a situation is determined by what three variables?
leader position power
the extent to which tasks have clear goals and problems can be solved; the more structured the task, the more favorable the situation
the extent to which a leader, by nature of his or her position, has the power to reward and punish subordinates; the greater the position or legitimate power, the more favorable the sutiation
leader position power
the extent to which subordinates like a leader; the more subordinates like their leader, the more favorable the situation will be
Based on the Path Goal theory, House (1971) believes that a leader's behavior will be accepted by subordinates only to the extent to which the behavior does what?
help the subordinates achieve their goals
Which theory concentrates on the interactions between leaders and subordinates or leader–member exchanges?
leader-member exchange LMX theory
With respect to the types of leadership, what are the characteristics of transactional leadership versus transformational leadership?
Transactional Leadership- leadership style in which the leader focuses on task-oriented behaviors(setting goals, monitoring performance, and providing consequence for success or failure)
-Transformational leadership- visionary leadership in which the leader changes the nature and goals of an organization
Transformational leaders are visionary, charismatic, inspirational, confident, and optimistic; and they challenge the status-quo and carefully analyze problems
What form of leadership requires that leaders reflect on their own ethics, core beliefs, and values rather than leading by copying the leadership style of others?
What criterion for being considered a group refers to a condition when something affects one member of the group it affects all members?
corresponding effects (interdependence)
What term refers to the extent to which group members like and trust one another?
What are the different group roles members can assume?
task oriented roles
involve behaviors such as offering new ideas, coordinating activities, finding new information
involve encouraging cohesiveness and participation
a third category that includes blocking group activities, calling attention to oneself, and avoiding group interaction; seldom result in higher group productivity
Considers the effect on individual performance when people work together on a task. States that individuals in a group often exert less individual effort than they would if they were not in a group.
What is a definition of social loafing according to the social loafing theory?
What is a situation in which a group becomes so cohesive and like-minded that it makes poor decisions by ignoring information relevant to the decision-making process known as?
Which source of conflict results when geographical boundaries or lines of authority are unclear?
What is the conflict resolution strategy that involves a neutral third party who operates as facilitator and who helps both sides reach a mutually agreeable solution known as?
What methods facilitate upward communication?
-allows for the communication of opinions, complaints, suggestions, etc. to management in a designated area and in an anonymous fashion at virtually any time.
Third Party facilitators
What are the different types of grapevine patterns?
information is passed on from one person to another
information is passed on by one person to a selected group
information is passed on by one person to a selected group who then randomly passes on the information
information is passed on by one person to a selected group who then selectively passes on the information
the exchange of a message across a communication channel from one person to another
What is a definition of interpersonal communication?
What is a definition of paralanguage? Be prepared to be tested via the presentation of definitions and/or scenarios.
Rate of speech
amount of talking
What do artifacts include? Be prepared to be tested via the presentation of definitions and/or scenarios.
what we wear
the care we drive
the house we live in
What are our reactions to information overload? Be prepared to be tested via the presentation of definitions and/or scenarios.
use of a gatekeeper
use of multiple channels
involves the conscious decision not to process certain types of information
involves processing all information but processing some of it incorrectly
involves prioritizing and organizing information into an order in which it will be handled; placing the communication into a waiting line
involves an employee beginning to miss a lot of work or leaving the organization to reduce stress
involves the use of a person who screens potential communication for someone else and allows only the most important information to pass through
use of a gatekeeper
involves directing some of the communication to another person
use of multiple channels
What factors affect the way in which a received message is interpreted?
Research by McClelland and Burnham (1976) and McClelland and Boyatzis (1982) has demonstrated that high performance managers have a "leadership motive pattern." High performance managers have what type of leadership motive pattern?
High need for achievement
high need for power
low need for affiliation
Hogan (1989) has identified characteristics associated with poor leadership. What are characteristics associated with poor leadership?
lack of training
What are the behavioral styles and respective ideal climates according to the IMPACT theory of leadership?
What are the four behavioral leadership styles proposed by House ‘s Path Goal theory?
a leadership style in which the leaders influence others by virtue of their appointed or elected authority
effective in a climate of _____, an organizational climate in which people are not sure what to do
a style of leadership in which the leader leads through knowledge and information
effective in a climate of _____, an organizational climate in which important information is not available
a style of leadership in which the leader has influence because of his or her charismatic personality
effective in a climate of ____, an organizational climate characterized by low morale
a leadership style in which the individual leads by caring about others
effective in a climate of _____, an organizational climate in which worry predominates
a leadership style in which the individual leads by controlling reward and punishment
effective in a climate of ____, a critical time or climate for an organization in which the outcome to a decision has extreme consequences
a leadership style in which a person leads through organization and strategy
effective climate of ______________, a climate in which the organization has the necessary knowledge/resources bus does not know how to efficiently use the knowledge/resources
plans, organizes, controls
shows concern for employees
shares information and lets employees participate
sets challenging goals and rewards increases in performance
What are the different forms of power a leader can obtain?
power that individuals have because they have knowledge
the power that individuals have because of their elected or appointed position
leadership power that exists to the extent that the leader has the ability and authority to provide rewards
leadership power that comes from the leader's capacity to punish others
leadership power that exists when followers can identify with a leader and the leader's goals and when followers have positive feelings the leader
Visionary charismatic managers are often known as what type of leaders?
What are the criteria for being a group?
2 or more people that perceive themselves as a group
process must be beneficial and valued; the group must provide rewards to its members
anything that happens to one member of the group affects every other member
the members of the group must share a common goal
What are the reasons why people join groups?
What term refers to the extent to which group members are similar?
-the negative effects that occur when a person performs a task in the presence of others
-social facilitation: the positive effects that occur when a person performs a task in the presence of others
What is a definition of social inhibition; what is a definition social facilitation?
What are truths regarding the effects of individual dominance in a group?
When one member of a group dominates the group
If the leader or group member asserting his/her dominance has an accurate solution to a problem, is intelligent, and conscientiousness; the group will probably perform at a high level.
What type of team is also called cross-functional teams and consists of representatives from various departments (functions) within an organization teams consist of representatives from various departments within an organization?
What are the different reactions to conflict/ different conflict styles?
What is the conflict resolution strategy in which a neutral third party who operates as a judge and who listens to all parties involved in a conflict and then makes a decision called?
arbitration; under third party intervention
the conflict style of a person who reacts to conflict by pretending that it doesnt exist
avoiding style; withdrawal and trianlging
the conflict style of a person who tends to respond to conflict by giving in to the other person
Accommodating style; also known as the "giving-in" style, "smoothing and conciliation" style
the conflict style of a person who responds to conflict by always trying to win
forcing style; winning at all costs
the conflict style of a person who wants a conflict resolved in such a way that both sides get what they want
collaborating style; win win style