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1

a branch of psychology that applies the principles of psychology to the workplace

industrial/org psyc

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focus on determining the competencies needed to perform a job, staffing the organization with employees who have those competencies, and increasing those competencies through training

industrial approach

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creates an organizational structure and culture that will motivate employees to perform well, give them the necessary information to do their jobs, and provide working conditions that are safe and result in an enjoyable and satisfying work/life environment

organizational approach

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concentrates on the selection and evaluation of employees

personnel psyc

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investigates the behavior of employees within the context of an organization

organizational psyc

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concentrates on the interaction between humans and machines

human factors/ergonomics

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well thought-out suggestions or ideas

hypotheses

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systematic sets of assumptions regarding the nature and cause of particular events

theories

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vigilant and hypervigilant decision making experiment; controlled setting

laboratory

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assigned vs participative goal setting experiment; natural, real-world setting

field

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independent variable is manipulated AND subjects are randomly assigned to conditions; can investigate and determine/infer causal relationships

experiment

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independent variable is not manipulated OR subjects are not randomly assigned to conditions

Quasi- experiment

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involves using previously collected data or recordS

archival research

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a technique that allows results from several different research studies to be combined and summarized; typically rely on indicators of effect size, or estimates of the magnitude of the relationship or effectiveness of some variable

meta-analysis

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highly detailed description of a single individual; generally used to investigate rare, unusual, or extreme conditions

case study

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investigation of opinions, behaviors, or characteristics of a particular group through self-report

survey

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a meeting at which information is obtained from a person

interview

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direct observation and recording of naturally occurring behavior

natural observation

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in an experiment, the variable that is manipulated; the cause in the causal relationship
in nonexperimental method, the variable that influences another variable; the predictor or standalone variable

independent variable

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in an experiment, the measure of behavior that is expected to change as a result of manipulative changes in the IV; the effect in the causal relationship
in nonexperimental method, the variable that is influenced by another variable; the criterion, outcome, measured variable

dependent variable

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a third variable that can often explain the relationship between two other variables; another possible cause

extraneous/intervening variable

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in an experiment, the group that is subjected to change in the independent variable

experimental group

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in an experiment, that group that receives no treatment or the standard treatment and is not exposed to the experimental manipulation of the IV; the group that serves as a baseline

control group

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used when experiments are not practical or when manipulating a variable may not be ethical ; cannot determine cause-effect relationships

quasi experiment

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a sample in which every member of the relevant population had an equal chance of being chosen to participate in the study

random

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small quantity of a targeted group whose characteristics represent as accurately as possible the entire population

representative

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participants are selected on the basis of chance alone from a larger population of subjects

random selection

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a nonrandom research sample that is used because if is easily available

convenience selection

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the random, unbiased assignment of subjects in a research sample to the various experimental and control conditions

random assighment

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if the p< .05 then what

the results are statistically significant and there was a treatment effect

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the extent to which the results of a study have actual impact on human behavior

practical significance

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descriptive statistics, which summarize data are:

mean, median, mode, frequencies, standard deviation

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inferential statistics, which shows differences are:

t tests, analysis of variance and chi-square

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numerical indication of magnitude and direction of the relationship between two variables; represents how closely and in what way two variables correlate (change together)

correlation coefficient

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both variables increase together

positive correlation +

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as one increases, the other variable decreases

negative correlation -

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gathering, analyzing, and structuring information about a job's components, characteristics, and requirements

job analysis

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allows for the writing of a brief summary of the tasks and job requirements

writing job descriptions

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allows for the selection or development of selection tests or interview questions that will permit the identification of qualified applicants

employee selection

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allows for the creation of systematic training programs

training

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allows for the determination of an employee's mobility within the company

personpower planning

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allows for the construction of a performance appraisal instrument

performance appraisal

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allows for the grouping of jobs according to similarities in requirements and duties, useful in determining pay levels, transfers, and promotions

job classification

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allows for the determination of a job's worth, worth is based on level of responsibility, physical demands, mental demands, education requirements, training, and experience requirements, and work conditions

job evaluation

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allows for the determination of the optimal way to do a job.

job design

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allows for the determination of the job relatedness of a job's requirements

compliance with legal guidelines

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allows for an analysis to be done at the organizational level

organizational analysis

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a judicial interpretation of a law that establishes a precedent for future cases

case law

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occurs when the selection rate for one group is less than 80% of the rate for the highest scoring group

four fifths rule; adverse impact

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granting of sexual favors is tied to employment decisions; single incident is enough; organization is always liable

quid pro quo

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pattern of conduct, related to gender, is unwanted, negative to the reasonable person, affects a term, condition, or privilege of employment

hostile environment harassment claims

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reasons for affirmative action plans, involuntary

government regulation, court order

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reasons for affirmative action plans, voluntary

consent decree, desire to be a good citizen

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protects citizens against unreasonable search or seizure by the government

fourth amendment

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steps to conducting a job analysis

1. identify tasks performed
2. write task statements
3. rate task statements
4. determine essential KSAOs
5. select tests to tap KSAOs

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a body of information needed to perform a task

knowledge

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the proficiency to perform a certain task

skill

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a basic capacity for performing a wide range of different tasks, acquiring a knowledge, or developing a skill

ability