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In what year did Roosevelt cut back spending on the New Deal?



What happened when New Deal spending was cut?

Unemployment rose (10.5 million in 1938)


In 1938 the Republicans won more seats in Congress. Why was this difficult for Roosevelt and the New Deal?

He couldn't pass laws easily through Congress


What was the 'cash and carry' plan of November 1939?

GB and France would buy goods and weapons from America for the war if they collected them in their own ships.


When was the 'Lend-Lease' scheme introduced?

March 1941


What was the 'Lend-Lease' scheme?

GB could obtain materials from America without cash payment (boosted US production)


In 1941 there were 1.6 million men in the US army. How many were in it by 1945?

12 million


What happened to the Gross National Product (goods produced in that country) between 1938 and 1944?

It doubled


How many were unemployed in 1941?

6 million


With the war effort how many people migrated from the southern states to the north to work in industries?

1.6 million


Give two ways the New Deal helped a new society.

- people had faith in government
- New Deal was a huge social and economic programme, never done before, it showed government could help people in the future


Give two ways the New Deal didn't help a new society

- divided the American public (Roosevelt accused of being a communist and Ickes and Hopkins accused of being anti business)
- undermined local government (state)


Give two ways industrial workers were helped by the New Deal and Roosevelt?

- helped labour unions against big employers
- helped unions and made corporations negotiate with them


Give two ways industrial workers situation was not improved by the New Deal and Roosevelt?

- unions still treated with suspicion by employers (violence still used to break up strikes)
- big business still very powerful in USA


Give at least two ways in which the New Deal helped with unemployment and the economy?

- created millions of jobs
- Stabilised banking system in USA
- agencies such as the TVA, CCC and PWA improved the standard of living,gave jobs, helped the environment (dams, forests, national parks) and built schools, hospitals, roads etc


Give at least two ways in which the New Deal didn't help improve unemployment and the economy.

- 6 million unemployed in 1941 (only WW2 ended unemployment)
- ND never solved underlying economic problems
- US economy took longer to recover than most European countries
- confidence in economy still low in 1930s ( people only invested about 75% of what they had done before 1929)


How did the New Deal help African Americans?

- Approx 200,000 African Americans were helped by CCC and other agencies
- many benefitted from New Deal slum clearance Andy housing programmes


How did African Americans not help African Americans?

- many New Deal agencies discriminated against Africans Americans (e.g. Lower wages)
- Roosevelt failed to pass laws against lynching of African Americans (feared he would lose the uspport of Democratic senators in the south)


How did the New Deal help women?

New Deal gave some women big roles (e.g. Eleanor Roosevelt became a campaigner for social issues)


How did the New Deal not help women?

Mainly aimed at male manual workers rather than women (e.g. Only 8,000 women involved in CCC )


Give two ways the New Deal helped Native Americans?

Indian Reorganisation Act 1934:-
- gave money to help buy and improve land
- helped Native American preserve and practise their traditions, laws and culture


Name a way in which the New Deal didn't help Native Americans?

Native Americans remained a poor and excluded section of society


What evidence is there that Roosevelt was still a popular President in 1940?

Elected with a big majority again by the American people