Superficial Cold Modalities Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Superficial Cold Modalities Deck (53)
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1

Hemodynamic effect has initial ___ and late ___

decrease in blood flow, increase

2

explain initial decrease in blood flow (4)

- Makes blood viscous
○ Reduce blood flow
- Decrease production of vasodilator
○ Histamine and prostaglandin
○ Less lumen
○ Vasoconstriction
- Direct: Smooth muscle contraction => vasoconstriction
- Indirect: DRG => Reflex activation of sympathetic adrenergic neurons => vasoconstriction

3

explain Later increase in blood flow

- Cold induced vasodilation
- Temperature lowers then rises which causes vasodilation
- Hunting response
○ Alternating cold and hot
○ Protective mechanism
○ Prolonged vasoconstriction deprives them of oxygen

4

explain gate control theory

a beta and a alpha fibers are stimulated in order to activate inhibitory interneuron in the substantia gelatinosa that will inhibit impulses from a delta and c fibers from reaching the second order neuron

5

How many mins application for decreased ncv

5 mins or more

6

cold is more effective on which fibers for decreasing nerve conduction velocity

a alpha

7

how does cold increase pain threshold

decreasing ncv, spasm is reduced

8

how does cold reduce edema

○ Reduction of blood flow
○ Reduction of free nerve ending compression
○ Less pain

9

how long for application of cold for increase in strength of muscles

< 5 mins

10

how long for application of cold to decrease strength

>5-30 mins

11

why do muscles decrease in strength with long periods of cold

○ Reduce blood flow
○ Lower ncv
○ Increased viscosity of muscle components
Stiffness of tissues

12

cold reduces spasticity. t or f.

True

13

How long should cold be applied to reduce spasticity

10-30 mins

14

how does cold reduce spasticity

- Lowering activity of gamma motor neuron activity
- Lowering afferent spindle and GTO activity

15

Long application needed for facilitation of muscle contraction. T or F.

False

16

How does cold facilitate muscle contraction

- Facilitates alpha motor neuron
- Facilitates tone

17

when we use cold or hot modalities, pain is completely eliminated. T or F.

False

18

Cold is recommended when healing is delayed. T or F.

False

19

How does cold decrease metabolic rate

- Inhibits of cartilage degrading enzymes for OA
○ Collagenase, elastase, hyaluronidase and protease
- Reduces level of histamine in blood for RA

20

Methods of heat loss

conductio, convection, evaporation, respiration

21

uses for cryotherapy (9)

- Inflammation
- Edema control
- Reduce DOMS
- Pain control
- Modification of spasticity
- Symptom management in multiple sclerosis
○ Feel fatigue in warm temperatures
- Facilitation
- Cryokinetics (w exercise)
- Cryostretch

22

Purpose of cryokinetics and cryostretch

- Reduce soreness

23

how to heal acute burns

- Apply flowing cool water

24

why is cold used with Joint mobilization or deep friction massage

desensitizes patient for the uncomfortable aspect

25

contraindications (7)

Cold hypersensitivity/cold-unduced urticaria

Cold intolerance

Cryoglobulinemia

Paroxysmal cold hemoglubinuria

Raynaud's disease

Regenerating peripheral nerve

Area with vascular disorder

26

Precautions (5)

- Over superficial main branch of nerve (do not compress)
- Open wound
○ Make sure you do not impede blood flow
- Hypertension
- Poor sensation
Extreme ages of patients

27

signs of - Cold hypersensitivity/cold-unduced urticaria

cold hives

28

signs of cold intolerance

○ Severe pain
○ Numbness
○ Discoloration

29

signs of cryoglobulinemia

○ Aggrevation of proteins
○ Impairs circulation
○ No circulation
○ ischemia

30

signs of - Paroxysmal cold hemoglubinuria

○ Hemoglobin is released in urine