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Flashcards in Intro to PhyMod Deck (47)
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1

What is under manual therapy?

Massage, joint mobilization, manipulation, pressure

2

what is under therapeutic exercise?

flexibility, strengthening, neuromuscular, balance, coordination, proprioception, relaxation

3

what is under patient education?

- Body mechanics
- Pain relief
- Home exercise programs
Risk reduction

4

4 applications of physical modalities

- Modulation of pain
- Alteration of muscle activation
- Decreasing inflammation and facilitating tissue healing
- Increasing tissue extensibility

5

Most common application of phy mod

pain modulation

6

How to decrease pain (4)?

- Increasing blood flow
- Gate control theory
- Decreasing swelling
Reducing compression

7

Increasing blood flow reduces pain through

- Heat is applied and vasodilation occurs
- The inflammatory substances are washed away
- Deposition of new cells will occur
○ Facilitates repair of new part

8

Decrease swelling reduces pain through

- When it is swollen, soft tissues are stretched and nerves are pinched
- Nociceptors will not be activated when swelling is reduced
- This is done through cryotherapy and compression units

9

Reducing compression reduces pain through

- When nerve root is compressed it causes pain
- Traction is applied

10

What is gate control theory?

stimulating of other senses to block pain receptors

11

Inhibitory interneuron is found in

substantia gelatinosa in spinal cord

12

2nd order neuron function

- Carries impulse from a delta fibers and c fibers

13

A delta fibers

immediate pain

14

c fibers

- Inflammation pain
- Swelling pain
- Poorly localized
- Unmyelinated
Poor nerve conduction

15

a alpha

proprioception

16

a beta

touch

17

process of feeling pain

- Pain is sensed by a delta or c fibers
- Goes to second order neuron
Goes to brain and says it's painful

18

how is pain reduced through gate control theory?

- Physical modalities stimulate the pathway with a alpha and a beta fibers
- Since these fibers are thick and myelinated, it the stimulus travels fast
- This stimulates the inhibitory interneuron
- This inhibits the 2nd order neuron and closes the gate to pain

19

Two ways physical agents alter muscle activation

- facilitation
- Inhibition

20

how physical agents facilitate muscle activation

- Encourage contraction through electrical stimulation
- Depolarization of peripheral nerves to recruit more motor units
- Those with weakness
- NMES, FES, ES

21

how physical agents facilitate muscle Inhibition

- Induce fatigue in the muscle through electrical stimulation
- Can also use cryotherapy to decrease nerve conduction velocity
- Pain reduction

22

When we have pain there is increased tone of muscle. T or F.

- True
- Bawasan blood supply
- Causes pain

23

how is pain reduced through muscle inhibition?

- Heat modalities for better blood flow
- Muscle guarding

24

Inflammatory phase signs

- Swollen
- Pain
- Redness
- Warm to touch
- Loss of function

25

Targets in inflammatory phase

- Decrease blood flow through cryotherapy
- Reduction of pain through TENS or ultrasound
- Minimize duration and effects

26

Proliferative phase

- Increase blood flow thru heat
Promote repair of damaged tissues

27

Maturation phase

- Remodel the tissue to return back to previous integrity
- Restore function
- Influence maturation and organization of collagen

28

How to increase tissue extensibility

- Heat facilitates elongation and deformation of collagen
- Most common is ultrasound
- After area is heated, stretch the area

29

Types of physical modalities

- Thermal
- Electromagnetic
- Mechanical

30

Electromagnetic

- Apply electrical current or electromagnetic radiation
- Brings physiological eggects