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Flashcards in superficial hot modalities Deck (49)
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1

hemodynamic effects

vasodilator release, activates cutaneous receptors

2

vasodilators

histamine and prostaglandin

3

what happens when cutaneous receptors are activated

smooth muscles relax

- DRG
○ Later on synapsing to lateral gray horn of tc segments
○ Decrease symp adrenegic activation

4

when you increase temp by 1 degree ncv ---- by ----

increases by 2 m/s

5

effect of hot on demyelinated peripheral enrves

conduction block

6

hot reduces ___ and ____

- Reduces ischemia and spasm
○ Breaks pain spasm pain cycle

7

how long should application be for decrease in muscle strength

initial 30 mins

8

how does thermo alter muscle strength

- Lowered firing rate of alpha motor neurons

Decreased firing rate of: type II muscle spindle efferents and gamma efferents
Increase firing rate of type 1b (GTO)

9

increase in metabolic rate is seen between ___ and ___ degrees

39 to 43

10

beyond 45 degrees, what is effect on metabolic rate

enzymatic activity reduced

11

beyond 50 degrees, what is effect on metabolic rate

○ Enzymatic activities stop

12

good effect of heat on metabolic rate

- Accelerates healing of chronic wounds

- Shift of o2 dissociation curve to right
○ Makes O2 available for tissue repair

13

bad effect of heat on metabolic rate

- Increase in collegenase activity => destroy articular cartilage

14

temp and duration for tissue extensibility

40-45 degrees for 10 mins

15

methods of heat gain

- Conduction
- Convection
- Radiation

16

hot moist pack storage

70-75 degrees c

17

hmp is made of

bentonite and hydrophilic silicate gel

18

terry cloth is equivalent to

4 layers

19

duration of hmp

15-20 mins

20

ratio of wax to oil in pwb

6:1

21

purpose of oil

makes melt at lower temp

22

melting temp of pwb

45-50

23

methods of pwb

○ Dip and wrap: 6-10
○ Dip immersion: 20 mins
○ Paint and brush

24

fluidotherapy

- Dry heating
- Convection moving air
- Cabinet with cellulose inside

25

lambert's cosine law

right angle

26

inverse square law

intensity inversely proprortionate to distance

27

Law of grothus draper/principle of chemical activation

§ Waves must be absorbed in order to have an effect

28

- Arndt schultz principle

§ Intensity = warmth
§ There is an optimal amount of energy absorption per unit time

29

Bunsen roscoe law of reciprocity

§ Intensity and duration are inversely proportional

30

Near IR/IRA/MIRE

- Short
- Luminous (closer to visible)
- 7701400 nm
- 3x10^8 m/s
- Epidermal and dermal layer
- Penetration: 1-3 mm
- Vigorous rise in temp

31

Middle or far IRR

- Long
- Non luminous
- 1,400-3000 nm
- Stratum corneum
- 0.1 mm
- Small and gradual rise in temp

32

Luminous IRR

- From glowing source tungsten or carbon filament

33

Non-luminous

- Non glowing source like corborundum with metal reflector

34

Luminous distance

45-60 cm / 18-24 inches

35

Non-luminous distance

74-91 cm/ 29-36 inches

36

preheating for IRRs

- Not necessary for luminous
○ Can do 5 min warm up
- Non-luminous
○ Requires 5-10 min warmp up

37

optimum time for IRR

20 mins

38

functions of IRR

Used for pressure sores
adjunct to TENS
- Lowers skin impedance
Psoriasis

39

contraindications for heat

- Hemorrhage recent or potential
- Thrombophlebitis
- Malignant tumor
- Metal in area

40

contraindications for IRR

- Acute dermal conditions
- Erythema ab igne
○ Red rash
- Over the eyes
- Cardiac insufficiency

41

precautions for heat

- Acute injury or inflammation
- Pregnancy
- Impaired circulation
- Poor thermal regulation
- Edema
- Metal close to area
- Recently applied topical counterirritants
- Demyelinated nerves
○ Do not compress
- Impaired sensation
- Impaired mentation

42

precautions for irr

perspiration

43

irr documentation

at on in x to

44

contrast bath temperatures

Warm - 38-44 degrees
Cold - 10-18 degrees

45

use of contrast bath

Vascular pumping mechanism
Benefit of heat while avoiding increased edema
Larger difference for pain or edema
For desensitization: small difference

46

process of contrast bath

hot for 3-4 mins, cold for 1 min

repeat 5-6 times

end with hot

47

conversion of Celsius to Fahrenheit

c(9/5) + 32

48

Fahrenheit to Celsius

(F - 32)(5/9)

49

vasodilatory effect of heat is the release of

nitrous oxide and bradykinin