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Flashcards in Surgical conditions of the nasopharynx Deck (47)
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1

What is an issue with the pharynx compared to sinuses etc?

entirely muscle
strong reliance on proper innervation for structure

2

What is the pharynx anatomically?

mucomembranous tube
conduit between nasal passages and larynx

3

What are the functions of the pharynx?

1. breathing
2. deglutition
3. vocalization

4

What are the pharyngeal muscles?

genioglossus
gentogyoideus
styloglossus
sternohyoideus
omohyodeus

5

HO id dilateion and constriction of the pharynx achieved?

coordinated function fo the nasopharyngeal muscles

6

What is the nerve supply to back of through?

10, 5 is involved as well

7

What animals get pharyngitits (pharyngeal lymphoid hyperplasi)

young horses

8

what is the istory of pharyngitits?

nasal discharge
cough
decreased performance/noise? (throat hurts)--turbulence over bumps

9

HOw is pharyngitis dx?

endoscopy

10

What are the grades fof pharyngitits?

1-4

11

What is the treatment for pharyngitis?

regular vaccination against virus induced upper airway inflam
2. anti-inflammatories
3. rest! rest! rest! 4-5d (owner's dont want)--oft go away
4. sx only if large

12

Why must you rest horses with pharyngitis?

turbulent airflow due to the bumps causes more inflammation to the area

13

What is the cause of pharyngeal collapse?

dysfunction of stylopharyngeus muscle (cranial nerve IX)

14

Is pharyngeal collapse significant?

yes, but don't know why? 9-15yr old warmbloods
(some degree of collapse normal in exercising horse)

15

What does the stylopharyngeus msucle do?

hold up the dorsal pharyngeal wall

16

Why do you always scope the gutteral pouches with pharyngeal collapse?

because the stylopharyngeus is innervated by cranial nerve IX that runs over gutteral pouch and issues with gutterual pouch can cause neuropraxia of the 9th cranial nerve

17

Why shouldn't you sedate a horse that suspect has pharyngeal collapse?

because sedation causes pharyngeal collapse

18

How is pharyngeal collapse diagnosed?

endoscopy (at rest of exercise)

19

What is the treatment for pharyngeal collapse?

none

20

Why should you assess how bad the pharyngeal collapse is before exercising a horse?

because they may get agitated and stop and come off the back of the treadmill

21

What is the significance of dorsal displacement of the soft palate?

performance limiting

22

Is dorsal displacemnt of the softt palate common?

yes, often in young raace horses

23

What are two types of dorsal displacement of soft palate?

static
intermitent/dynamic

24

What kind of obstruction does dorsal displacement of the soft palate cause?

expiratory airway obstruction

25

What is the consequence of dorsal displacement of the soft palate?

hypoxia
hypercapnia

26

What are the theories of etiology of dorsal displacement of soft palate?

1. abnormal soft palate
2. epiglottic hypoplasia
3. excessive caudal retraction
4. caudal retactio nof tongue
5. open mouth
6. neuromscular dysfunction (pharyngeal branch of vagus)

27

How is dorsal displacement of the soft palate diagnosed?

1. history--they sudden slow down a LOT
2. endoscopy (rest or nasal occlusion or treadmill--more likely to dorsally displace)
3. radiographs (permanent)

28

Why have two markers on the horse with radiograph?

can account for magnification and measure the length of the epiglottis

29

Does a short epiglottis lead ot DDSP?

not necessarily

30

What do you have to be cautious about with DDSP?

find if there are other issues--may be causing the DDSP and DDSP may resolve if resolve that issue (e.g. chondroid causing neuropraxia)