Flashcards in Surgical equine dermatology Deck (40)
What is the most common skin tumor in the horse?
What are differential diagnoses for sarcoid?
1. squamous cell carcinom
3. parasitic lesions
5. equine papilloma
6. granulation tissue
Where do squmaous cell carcinomas tend to be?
head or genital
Where do melanomas tend to be?
muzzle? under tail?
Where can parasitic lesions and ringworms be?
What can granulation tissue look like?
2. squamous cell carcinoma
What are the characteristics of dry, flat sarcoid
dry, flat--hair loss, skin is normal underneath, ressembles ringworm but not silvery. palpate bmps and irregularities at edge of lesion--true edge of lesion
What are the features of a mixed sarcoid
not itchy or painful
ddx staph folliculitis--but PAINFUL
What are the classifications of sarcoids?
1. dry, flat
3. nodular (type A, Type B)
4. verrucose--feel like warts
How common are periorbital sarcoids
What is the etiology of sarcoids?
1. can occur one-off
2. can occur in groups of horses--"outbreak" then go away without treatment
these have different etiologies
What are the features of fibroblastic sarcoids?
can be primary but usually secondary to inadequate intervention
Tumors on the head are what until proven otherwise?
squamous cell carcinoma
How do you diagnose a skin lesion?
take a biopsy and send to someone that has experience looking at horse skin!!!
Why do you not want to biopsy a sarcoid?
may turn fibroblastic because you upset it
What are treatment options for sarcoids?
1. surgical removal
2. surgical removal and cryptherapy
4. laser therapy
How do you correctly surgically remove a sarcoid?
1. don't prep--take surface active cells and scrub over surgical field then cut through and seed them into your margins
2. don't clip
3. make big square line block and cut inside square
4. pick up skin margin with towel clamps, not thumb forceps
5. often don't have to go very deep (dermal based tumors)
6. horses have many myofibril cells in skin--as soon as make any sized hole, will become 30% bigger v/ quickly--warn client!
7. put big tacking sutures across the wound. near far, far near, tight! if a few days will be loose--massively improve bandage, treatment time
8. smear vasoline down the side of the horse (and have fly spray)
9. time it with spring, late fall so there a fewer flies because these wounds are fly magnets!
How should you do cryotherapy on sarcoids?
do 3 cycles
What are the steps of cryotherapy
rapidly freeze tissue--ice crystals
slow thaw--aggregation of ice crystals so ice block in cell gets larger
rupture of cell
microthrombus formation--avascular necrosis of remaining tumor cells left behind--tell client that more will die!!!
What is CO2 laser therapy?
a treatment for sarcoid
What is the problem with treating sarcoids on the ear?
very unforgiving tissue, could damage cartilage and disrupt proper structure of ear
What is the BCG vaccine?
a vaccine for sarcoids
What is the issue with the sarcoid vaccine?
some animals have a major anaphylactic reaction and drop dead (second time?) may pretreat with dex but given risk and success rate probably don't use this
What drug is used with immunotherapy?
can inject into mass (use luer lock syringe)
cisplatin beads--make small incision in sarcoid and drop beat in and cruciate suture over it--works quite well but the beads are a pain--small, quite fragile
if first injection doesn't work, could try a second but no more than that if second does not work
What is the current definitive treatment for sarcoids?
inject grains, or wires
don't want in a midthoraxic, axillary region!!!
Why might you not be able to get a good freeze with cryotherapy after surgery?
the blood flowing can thaw the tissue faster than you can freeze it
Why do you want to get a very good freeze on sarcoid after surgery?
because want to penetrate deeply
What are topical therapies for sarcoids?
5-fluorouracil and oil of rosemary
ok, not great
Xterra: not FDA approved, not for sale in canada. No controlled trials!!!
blood root extract
Melanomas are most ocmmon in...