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Flashcards in Sept 23 Deck (18)
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1

What are signs that a colic is surgical?

1. refractory pain
2. persistently elevated heart rate
3. nasogastric reflux
4. distended loops of small intestine on rectal examination
5. abdominal distension/distended large colon
6. tight bands on rectal palpation
7. abnormal abdominocentesis

2

What are the goals of fluid therapy?

1. resuscitation-increase cardiac output
2. correct dehydration-esp impaction
3. keep up with ongoing losses
4. correct acid base and electrolyte disturbances

3

What are things to consider with fluid therapy?

1. type of fluid
2. rate of administration
3. route of administration
4. patient monitoring--adjust as needed

4

What are types of IV fluids?

crystalloids (maintenance or resuscitation)
hypertonic saline (quick restoration of volume, follow with isotonic)
isotonic saline
colloids--hetastarch, pentastarch or plasma

5

What are types of colloids?

hetastarch, pentastarch or plasma

6

What level of dehydration does an animal have to be at to detect it on a clinical exam?

5-12%

7

What is maintenance level of fluid?

2-2.5ml/kg/hr
50-60ml/kg/d

8

If an animal is dehydrated, over what period of time should you correct it?

12-24 hrs

9

How much fluid do you give to an animal that is dehydrated?

2x maintenance (5ml/kg/hr) plus losses

10

What are two sources of fluid loss?

relfux or diarrhea

11

What is the benefit of ranitidine in a refluxing horse?

it can be given IV, the others cannot be given IV

12

What is an issue with omeprazole?

it is expensive and the compounded formulation is no good

13

How do you prevent gastric ulcers?

1. dietary management (appropriate diet, quality roughage-alfalfa-high Ca, constant access to roughage)
2. omeprazole at a preventative dose

14

HOw is DPJ treated?

1. fluid therapy
2. analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs
3. gastric decompression
4. anti-endotoxin support
5. nutritional support!!!--e.g. parenteral if refluxing for several days
6. lidocaine CRI--prokinetic, anti-inflammatory
7. +/- antimicrobials
8. +/- surgery

15

What are two features of lidocaine CRI?

prokinetic, anti-inflammatory

16

How are impactions treated?

1. surgery if severe
2. control abdominal pain
3. oral laxatives
4. oral or intravenous fluid therapy

17

What are the rules of oral fluid therapy?

1. no more than 8-10L at a time
2. at least 20 min between doses
3. check for reflux before each administration
4. ideally isotonic

18

What is oral fluid therapy used for? What is it not for?

To treat dehydration NOT hypovolemia