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Flashcards in Equine respiratory diseases Deck (180)
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1

What is the LRT?

lungs from primary bronchi to alveoli

2

What is URT?

nares
nasal passages
pharynx
larynx
guttural pouches
trachea

3

What divides the guttural pouch into two compartments, which is the bigger compartment?

stylohyoid bone
medial compartment

4

Wht artery run over the guttural pouch?

external maxillary artery
internal carotid artery
external carotid artery

5

What nerves run over teh guttural pouch?

VII, IX X, XI, XII

6

What are the three main guttural puch diseases?

tympany
mycosis
empyema

7

What is the cause of guttural puch tympany?

1. dysfunction of the nasopharyngeal orifice (1 way valve)
2. secondary to upper airway infections/inflam
3. congenital (not that common)

8

What are the clinical signs of guttural pouch tympany?

1. non-painful elastic swelling in the retropharyngeal area!!
2. respiratory noise
3. cough and dysphagia

9

What is the treatment for guttural pouch tympany?

1. surgery
2. fenestration of median septum (unilateral)
3. creation of salpinogopharyngeal fistula

10

What are the guttural pouches?

caudoventral diverticula of the auditory tubes

11

What is a possible function of guttural pouches?

cooling of arterial blood suply to brain

12

What is the capacity of each guttural pouch?

300mL

13

What is the lining of the guttural pouches?

secretory mucosa lining and thinner than in nasopharynx

14

Why can guttural pouch tympany cause resp noise?

enlargement of guttural pouch can bulge above the epiglottis?? because it bulges ventrally into nasopharynx?

15

What is the most common guttural pouch disease?

guttural pouch empyema

16

What is guttural pouch empyema secondary to?

1. upper resp infections (strep equi)

17

What are the clinical signs of guttural pouch empyema?

1. intermittened nasal discharge that is worse when head is lowered
2. coughing and/or dysphagia in some cases
3. can see white on nose due to chronic nasal discharge

18

What is treatment for guttural pouch empyema?

if there is only pus, daily drainage and lavage. Antibiotics?
if there are chondroids-->flush, basket retrieval, surgery

19

Why is it important to have a horse's head down (heavy sedation) when flushing guttural pouch?

to prevent aspiration pneumoniae

20

What is a radiographic way to diagnose guttural pouch empyema?

a fluid line on radiograph

21

Why is important to flush everything out in guttural pouch empyema?

because won't resolve, antibiotics won't work

22

What does inspissated pus become?

chondroids

23

What is the most important cause of serious epistaxis that is not related to exercise or trauma? (important)

guttural pouch mycosis

24

Is there any warning that a horse will die of hemorrhage from mycosis?

Usually they have several bouts of hemorrhage before a fatal episode

25

What is the cause of guttural pouch mycosis?

aspergillus in the dorsocaudal region of the medial compartment

26

What is treatment for guttural pouch mycosis?

1. horses with epistaxis the affected artery should be identified and surgically occluded

27

What can be difficult to prevent with guttural pouch mycosis?

aberrant vessel anatomy
thrombi
infection and persistent nerve disfunction

28

What can be the survival of a horse with guttural pouch mycosis that is treated?

can exceed 90%

29

What nerves run over guttural pouch?

VII, IX, X, XI, XII
cranial cervical ganglion
sympathetic trunk

30

What can be the signs of guttural pouch mycosis?

bleeding from (external carotid, internal carotid, external maxillary)
nerve deficits