Flashcards in Equine respiratory diseases Deck (180)
What is the LRT?
lungs from primary bronchi to alveoli
What is URT?
What divides the guttural pouch into two compartments, which is the bigger compartment?
Wht artery run over the guttural pouch?
external maxillary artery
internal carotid artery
external carotid artery
What nerves run over teh guttural pouch?
VII, IX X, XI, XII
What are the three main guttural puch diseases?
What is the cause of guttural puch tympany?
1. dysfunction of the nasopharyngeal orifice (1 way valve)
2. secondary to upper airway infections/inflam
3. congenital (not that common)
What are the clinical signs of guttural pouch tympany?
1. non-painful elastic swelling in the retropharyngeal area!!
2. respiratory noise
3. cough and dysphagia
What is the treatment for guttural pouch tympany?
2. fenestration of median septum (unilateral)
3. creation of salpinogopharyngeal fistula
What are the guttural pouches?
caudoventral diverticula of the auditory tubes
What is a possible function of guttural pouches?
cooling of arterial blood suply to brain
What is the capacity of each guttural pouch?
What is the lining of the guttural pouches?
secretory mucosa lining and thinner than in nasopharynx
Why can guttural pouch tympany cause resp noise?
enlargement of guttural pouch can bulge above the epiglottis?? because it bulges ventrally into nasopharynx?
What is the most common guttural pouch disease?
guttural pouch empyema
What is guttural pouch empyema secondary to?
1. upper resp infections (strep equi)
What are the clinical signs of guttural pouch empyema?
1. intermittened nasal discharge that is worse when head is lowered
2. coughing and/or dysphagia in some cases
3. can see white on nose due to chronic nasal discharge
What is treatment for guttural pouch empyema?
if there is only pus, daily drainage and lavage. Antibiotics?
if there are chondroids-->flush, basket retrieval, surgery
Why is it important to have a horse's head down (heavy sedation) when flushing guttural pouch?
to prevent aspiration pneumoniae
What is a radiographic way to diagnose guttural pouch empyema?
a fluid line on radiograph
Why is important to flush everything out in guttural pouch empyema?
because won't resolve, antibiotics won't work
What does inspissated pus become?
What is the most important cause of serious epistaxis that is not related to exercise or trauma? (important)
guttural pouch mycosis
Is there any warning that a horse will die of hemorrhage from mycosis?
Usually they have several bouts of hemorrhage before a fatal episode
What is the cause of guttural pouch mycosis?
aspergillus in the dorsocaudal region of the medial compartment
What is treatment for guttural pouch mycosis?
1. horses with epistaxis the affected artery should be identified and surgically occluded
What can be difficult to prevent with guttural pouch mycosis?
aberrant vessel anatomy
infection and persistent nerve disfunction
What can be the survival of a horse with guttural pouch mycosis that is treated?
can exceed 90%
What nerves run over guttural pouch?
VII, IX, X, XI, XII
cranial cervical ganglion