Name a few benefits and Limitations of Electrical signaling in the body
Benefits: Covers long distances rapidly with minimal loss of signal Limitations: Binary, difficult to modify and Energy intensive
Define Resting membrane potential
The potential energy in the electrical gradient formed across the plasma membrane. It is the basis for neuron activity, without the membrane potential the neurotransmitters would not be sent.
Explain how a capacitor, resistor and current in a circuit can be related to the membrane potential
Resistor: Ion Channels Capacitor: Plasma membrane (between +,- charge)
What are the 4 major ion channels that maintain the membrane potential
K+ Na+ Ca2+ Cl-
What does the Nernst equation calculate?/Goldman equation?
Nernst: Equilibrium of individual ion Goldman: Equilibrium of entire plasma membrane
Name and explain the 4 types of ion channels
1. Voltage gated (changes with membrane polartization) 2. Ligand Gated Opens with ligand binds 3. Leakage 4. Physically gated
Explain Na/K ATPase pumps
Name and label the 4 phases of the Action Potential
1. resting phase
2. Activation phase
3. Rising phase
4. Falling phase
5. undershoot phase
In what direction does the action potential travel along the axon?
Draw and label action potential
What are the 2 types of Neurtransmitters and where are the released?
Small molocules (amino acids), released in presynaptic
Neuropeptides - Proteins, released pre and post synaptically
Why are SNARE complex proteins important?
SNARE Complex proteins allow vesicle release
Name the 2 Neurotransmitter receptor types
1. Ionotropic (ligand binding)
2. Metabotropic (G - Protein, lasts longer but takes longer too)
Name the ions in the Excitatory Postsynaptic Potential and what it does?/Inhibitory
Excitatory: Na+, Ca2+ Depolarization
Inhibitory: Cl-, K- Hyperpolarization