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Flashcards in T1 - Blueprint Deck (89):
1

Sperm development is stimulated by which hormone?

testosterone

2

The pH of Seminal Fluid is ---, which makes is nutritive for sperm.

alkaline

3

Sperm survive ---

Ova survive ---

48-72 hrs

24 hrs

4

By --- weeks gestation, female has lifetime supply of oocytes.

12

5

Which hormone causes ovulation to occur?

LH

6

When does the placenta take over secreting P and E from the corpus luteum?

~ 3 months

7

How long does it take the zygote to reach the uterus?

3-4 days

8

Implantation occurs --- days after conception.

Book: 6-10 days

PPT notes: 6-8 days

***Just when estrogen and progesterone by the corpus luteum is at its highest

9

Premenopausal women have lower levels of E and P, which means they have what two things happen?

decreased bleeding

decreased blood levels of P and E

10

The chorionic villi develop out of which structure?

trophoblast

11

What allows the sperm to penetrate the egg?

Hyaluronidase (enzyme) allows the sperm to penetrate the corona radiata (outside membrane) of the ovum

12

Where does Hyaluronidase come from?

released by the acrosomal cap of the sperm to penetrate the egg

13

When does the blastocyte implant?

6 days after conception

14

Why give Rhogam?

If mother is Rh- and baby is Rh+ and their blood mixes at birth, the mother’s blood can form antibodies against the Rh+ blood.

This can be fatal for a subsequent baby that may be Rh+.

15

When do we give Rhogam?

- 28 weeks prophylactically

- again within 72 hrs after birth

- after any invasive procedure like amnioscentesis

16

Fetal heart starts to beat at what week gestation?

3rd week

17

When can fetal heart by seen by doppler?

10-12 wks

***heard by 8 wks

18

Characteristic will be expressed in the individual even if it's partner is different.

Dominant Gene (AA)

19

Characteristic will be expressed only if both parents are carriers.

Recessive Gene (aa)

20

With an Autosomal Recessive Gene, which people are unaffected clinically but are still carriers?

Heterozygous

21

Cystic Fibrosis is an example of which type of disease:

- Dominant (AA)
- Recessive (aa)

Recessive

**two genes are required for a person to inherit the disease

22

Why do we test for glycosuria?

sugar in urine

sign of gestational diabetes

23

During the perimenopause stage, there is a decrease in which hormones?

Progesterone

Estrogen

24

Ductus Venosus shunts blood around the fetal --- into the fetal ---

liver

IVC

25

How much folic acid should a pregnant woman recieve?

600 mcg

- grains
- green leafy veggies
- oranges
- broccoli
- asparagus
- artichokes
- liver

26

How much iron should pregnant mom recieve?

30 mg starting at 12 weeks

- liver
- meat
- whole grain / enriched breads
- dark leafy greens
- legumes
- dried fruits

27

How much calcium should pregnant mom receive?

600 mg (if it appears low)

- milk
- cheese
- yogurt
- sardines (or fish with bones left in)
- dark green leafy veggies
- baked beans
- tortillas

28

How much protein does a pregnant mom need?

First Trimester = 46 g

Second - Third Trimester = 71 g

29

Avoid extra --- because it will lead to edema.

sodium

30

Pregnant women who smoke need more --- in their diet.

Vit C

31

Maternal complications from cigarette smoke.

Placenta previa

Placental abruption

Preterm Premature ROM

Ectopic Pregnancy

32

--- is known to be a risk factor in LBW and IUGR

***LBW = low birth weight

***IUGR = Intrauterine Growth Restriction

Smoking

***May also impair lactation

33

The first --- weeks of pregnancy are most susceptible to alcohol.

6

34

What is the most preventable cause of cognitive disability in neonates?

ETOH consumption

35

What is the safe level of ETOH in pregnancy?

no known safe level

DON'T DRINK ETOH!!!

36

How can smoking make the baby hypoxic?

vasoconstriction decreases perfusion to the baby

37

What can pregnant mom do to reduce heartburn?

Antacids

Gum, mint, hard candy

Remain in sitting position after eating

Avoid fatty, fried foods and overeating

38

What is the most common manifestation of neonatal Gonorrhea infections?

Ophtalmia Neonatrum

***leads to blindness if not treated

39

Gonorrhea S/E during pregnancy?

purulent endocervical discharge

menstrual irregularities

abdominal pain

painful menses

40

Can an HIV mom breastfeed?

NO

41

Stages of Syphilis

Primary syphilis: primary lesion (painless papule to an ulcer in 5 to 90 days)

Secondary syphilis: widespread symmetric maculopapular rash on palms and soles + lymphadenopathy + fever, headache, malaise--6 wweks to 6 months)

Latent: asymptomatic, can only be detecting in serologic testing

****If untreated, tertiary syphilis will develop

****Neurologic, CV, musculoskeletal, or multiorgan system failure can occur

42

Which STD requires a Rapid Plasma Reagent?

Syphilis

43

What is the most common STI?

Chlamydia

***can cause Ectopic Pregnancy and Tubal Factor Infertility

44

Nursing intervention for Hypotension

Fall risk

- have patient sit up slowly and dangle legs

- help patient get up and walk to prevent falls

45

Instruction for Early Pregnancy Test (EPT)

First voided urine in AM

HCG detected 4 days after implantation

Meds can interfere with accuracy

46

--- cause false negative pregnancy tests.

--- cause false positive pregnancy tests.

Diuretics and Promethazine

Anticonvulsants and Tranquilizers

47

Softening and thinning of the lower segment of the uterus.

Hegar Sign

*** happens ~ 6th wk

48

Who is IUD not recommended for?

Women who haven't had children (can tear cervix b/c it's so tight)

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

If pregnancy occurs (cause miscarriage or premature labor)

49

Avoid oral contraceptives if history of ---

Thrombophlebitis

Pulmonary Embolism

CVA

CAD

Breast Cancer (estrogen feeds cancer)

Impaired liver function

Severe HTN

50

What is required in order to continue prescriptions for Oral Contraceptives?

Yearly exams

51

What may alter effectiveness of Oral Contraceptives?

St John's Wart

Anticonvulsants

Antifungals

Antituberculosis Drugs

anti-HIV Protease Inhibitors

52

What causes morning sickness?

unknown

maybe Hcg or emotional

53

What causes fatigue/malaise?

unknown

maybe Hcg or increase in estrogen and progesterone

maybe increased BBT

54

What causes urinary frequency?

vascular enlargement and altered bladder function due to hormonal changes

bladder capacity reduced by enlarging uterus

55

What causes Heartburn (Pyrosis)?

Progesterone is a smooth muscle relaxer

slows GI tract motility and digestion and relaxes cardiac sphincter, delaying emptying of stomach contents

56

What causes Hemorrhoids and Variocisties?

relaxation of smooth muscle walsl of veins b/c of hormones causing dilated veins in legs and perineal area

veins become engorged w/ blood

bearing down for BMs

57

What causes backache?

Relaxation of symphyseal and sacroiliac joints because of hormones, resulting in unstable pelvis; exaggerated lumbar and cervicothoracic curves caused by change in center of gravity resulting from enlarging abdomen

58

What causes leg cramps?

Compression of nerves supplying lower extremities because of enlarging uterus; reduced level of diffusible serum calcium or elevation of serum phosphorus;

aggravating factors:
- fatigue
- poor peripheral circulation
- pointing toes when stretching legs or when walking
- drinking more than 1 L of milk per day

59

What causes supine hypotension syndrome?

pressure of gravid uterus on ascending vena cava when woman is supine

***lay on left side

60

S/S of Pregnancy Induced Hypertension (PIH)

Visual disturbances

Periorital edema

FVD

***associated w/ Preeclampsia

61

What happens to liver enzymes with Preeclampsia?

elevated

***Put on magnesium sulfate for remainder of pregnancy (BURNS)

62

HELLP Syndrome (signs of Preeclampsia)

Hemolysis (H)

Elevated Liver Enzymes (EL)

Low Platelets (LP)

63

Cardinal signs of Preeclampsia

Proteinuria

Edema

Elevated BP

Headaches / Dizziness

Blurred Vision

64

Serious signs of Preeclampsia

Persistent Headache

Blurred Vision

Severe Epigastric Pain (RUQ)

Altered Mental Status

Rapid Onset Convulstions

65

When does quickening happen?

16-20 wks (primgravida)

14-16 wks (multip)

66

At 28 wks, fundal height would be ---

26-30 cm

67

A decrease of Hgb to less than ---- equals anemia.

10 g/dL

68

A decrease in HCT to less than --- equals anemia.

30%

69

If the pregnant mom has a negative rubella titer, when should she receive the immunization?

postpartum

NEVER during pregnancy

70

At approx 24-28 weeks, what do all pregnant women receive?

one hour glucose tolerance test

if fail, they take a 3 hour test

71

Glycosuria is a result of decreased --- --- and may indicate ----

renal threshold

diabetes

72

Proteinuria may be a sign of --- or ---

preeclampsia

infaction

***2+ to 4+ on dipstick

73

What could cause Ketonuria in pregnancy?

insufficient food intake

or

hyperemesis

74

Client education regarding Braxton Hicks

drink water to help w/ BP and amount of AF

75

UTI correlates with --- ---

preterm labor

76

For UNDERWEIGHT clients, what is a healthy amount of weight gain during 1st Trimester?

What about 2nd and 3rd Trimesters?

1st = 2.2-4.4 lb total

2nd and 3rd = 1-1.3 lb/wk

77

For NORMAL WEIGHT clients, what is a healthy amount of weight gain during 1st Trimester?

What about 2nd and 3rd Trimesters?

1st = 2.2-4.4 lb total

2nd and 3rd = 0.8-1 lb/wk

78

For OVERWEIGHT clients, what is a healthy amount of weight gain during 1st Trimester?

What about 2nd and 3rd Trimesters?

1st = 1-1.4 lb total

2nd and 3rd = 0.5-0.7 lb/wk

79

For OBESE clients, what is a healthy amount of weight gain during 1st Trimester?

What about 2nd and 3rd Trimesters?

1st = 1-1.4 lb total

2nd and 3rd = 0.4-0.6 lb/wk

80

Total weight gain during pregnancy should be?

Underweight = 28-40 lb

Normal weight = 25-35 lb

Overweight = 15-25 lb

Obese = 11-20 lb

81

Naegle's Rule

start w/ FIRST DAY of last menstrual period

- subtract 3 months

- add 7 days

ex: 4/1/16 would by 1/8/17

82

Which period is susceptible to major congenital anomalies from teratogens?

Which period is susceptible to functional defects and minor anomalies?

Embryonic (day 15 - 8 wks)

Fetal (9 wks - birth)

83

ETOH is associated with what birth defects?

LBW

FAS

Intellectual disabilities

Behavior probs

Learning / Physcial probs

84

Caffeine is associated w/ which birth defects?

Heart dysrythmias

85

When should a woman get Rubella immunization?

3 months or more prior to pregnancy

***use BC to prevent pregnancy during this period

86

What causes Pseudoanemai?

Increase in vascular vol -->

Increase in RBCs -->

Hemodilution -->

Hgb and HCT levels decrease -->

pseudoanemia

87

Client education regarding diaphragms?

Inserted into vagina up to 6 hours before

Use with spermicidal jelly or scream

Must remain in place 6-8 hours after intecourse

Increases risk of UTI

Return to health care provider for size refitting if weight fluctuates up or down

Does not prevent STD

Must be washed with mild soap and water, dried and kept away from heat

88

Nutritional concerns vegetarian pregnant client?

Vit B12 deceicienty (could result in neuro defects)

***eat milk, eggs, meat (liver) as sources of B12

***B12 fortified soy milk

***take 2.6 mcg daily of B12

89

Viability

20 weeks

500 grams