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Flashcards in T1 - Conception PPT (Josh) Deck (59):
1

--- is the meiotic process by which male gametes are produces.

Spermatogenesis

2

--- is the process by which female gametes are produced.

Oogenesis

3

Which muscle of the scrotum is important in temperature regulation for sperm?

Dartos Muscle

4

Sperm cell begins at ----

puberty

***NOT cyclic

5

Where do the secretions that sperm float in originate from?

Seminal Vesicles

Prostate Gland

6

What is the pH of sperm?

alkaline

7

How long does sperm live after ejaculation?

48-72 hrs

8

During normal ejaculation, how many sperm are released?

200-500 million

9

How long does it take sperm to travel to egg?

4-6 hrs

but can take as little as 5 minutes

10

When do oocytes form?

12 weeks gestation

****at birth, female has lifetime supply of oocytes

****400-500 eggs mature in a lifetime

11

The Ovarian Cycle is controlled by what?

Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Ovarian Axis

12

When does Ovulation occur?

14 + or - 2 days before next menstrual period

13

Which hormone has a large surge at ovulation?

LH

****ovulation occurs 14+ or - 2 days before next menstrual period

14

Phases of the Ovarian Cycle

Ovarian

Ovulation

Luteal Phase

15

What is the name of the path through which sperm goes to reach the ovum?

Hyaluronidase

16

Normal Fetal HR:

110-160

17

What process removes the protective coating from the heads of sperm?

capacitation

18

How many sperm penetrates the ovum?

one

19

Where does conception occur?

outer 1/3 of Fallopian Tube

20

Mother contributes ---- chomosomes.

Father contributes ---- chromosomes.

22xx

22xy

****mother can only give x chromosomes, so father determines sex of child

21

Regarding chromosomes, the baby receives --- from each parent. --- pairs are autosomes and ---- determine the sex.

Regarding chromosomes, the baby receives 23 FROM EACH PARENT. 22 PAIRS ARE AUTOSOMES and ONE PAIR DETERMINES THE SEX.

22

Cleavage (replication) occurs at --- as zygote is propelled toward uterus.

1 day

23

How many cells are in the Morula?

16

****produced ~ 3 days after fertilization

24

Blastocyst:

--- is the outer layer of cells.

--- is the inner layer of cells (baby)

Trophoblast

Blastocyst

25

Cleavage is Mitosis or Meiosis?

Mitosis

26

Which hormones are secreted by the Corpus Luteum?

Estrogen and Progesterone

***during first 2-3 mths of pregnancy

27

During first 2-3 months of pregnancy, what produces Estrogen and Progesterone?

Corpus Luteum

28

When is the Blastocyst implanted?

6-8 days after ovulation

****upper portion of uterus

29

Chorionic Villi are developed from which layer of the Blastocyst?

Trophoblast (outer layer)

30

What is the purpose of the Chorionic Villi?

extend into endometrium and tap into maternal blood supply for O2 and nutrients

31

After implantation, the endometrium is called the ---

decidua

32

Where is the decidua basalis?

beneath the blastocyst

****decidua basalis is the area of endometrium between the implanted chorionic vesicle and the myometrium, which becomes the maternal part of the placenta.

33

How can progesterone prevent fertilization?

changes cervical mucus and endometrium

*** IUDs are sometimes medicated w/ progesterone to prevent fertilization

34

G and D of Baby:

---- is conception to day 14

---- is day 15 to 8 wks

---- is 8 wks to 40 wks

Ovum

Embryo

Fetus

35

The --- period is when organs are forming and is the time of greatest vulnerability.

Embryo (day 15 - 8 wks)

36

Which period encompasses cellular replication (where zygote is formed into blastocyst)?

Ovum

37

What are the three primary germ layers of the Blastocyst?

Ectoderm

Mesoderm

Endoderm

38

Which germ layer of cell?

trophoblast (outer layer) develops into the placenta, integument, neural tissue and glands

Ectoderm

39

Which germ layer of cell?

forms muscles, bones, connective tissue, circulatory system, and genitourinary system

Mesoderm

40

Which germ layer of cell?

forms digestive, respiratory, and parts of the gu system

Endoderm

41

---- stage is the most critical time in the development of the organ systems and the external features.

Embryonic (day 15 - 8 wks)

42

The --- assists in lung development.

amniotic fluid

43

Normal volume of Amniotic Fluid:

800 - 1200 mL

***oligohydramnios = 2000 mL

44

What is oligohydramnios and why can it be a problem?

AF

45

What is polydramnios and why can it be a problem?

AF > 2000 mL

associated w/ esophageal atresia and w/ severe CNS anomalies

46

--- is the baby bouncing when examiner touches head and is a sign that baby is NOT ready to be born yet.

Ballottement

47

At 16 weeks gestation, what is a sufficient amount of AF?

200-300 mL

***sufficient to perform an amniocentesis

48

Why would the perform an amniocentesis?

too much AF slows down CNS development so they try to pull fluid off

49

Amniotic Fluid is alkaline or acidic?

alkaline

50

What is found in Amniotic Fluid that is essential in lung development?

Lecithin and Sphingomyelin

*** L/S ratio of 2:1 indicates fetal lung maturity

*** L/S is a major component of surfactant

51

What color are we looking for when using nitrazine paper to test AF?

blue

*** acid would turn it red

52

After ROM (Rupture of Membranes) what do we monitor?

fetal heart rate

we are looking for any decelerations in fetal HR

53

During maitenance of pregnancy, what produces estrogen and progesterone?

Placenta

***provides O2 and removes CO2

***metabolizes drugs/substances

54

Until 3rd month of pregnacy, the --- is main source of estrogen and progesterone

After 3rd mth, the --- is main source of estrogen and progesterone.

Corpus Luteum

Placenta

55

--- stimulates uterine development to provide environment for baby.

--- relaxes uterine muscle and prevents spontaneous abortion.

Estrogen

Progesterone

56

Lay mom on which side to decrease pressure on IVC?

left side

57

Nicotine does what to blood vessels?

vasoconstrictor (raises BP)

58

How many vessels are in the umbilical cord?

3

1 large vein (carrying O2)

2 arteries (carrying CO2)

59

Vein and arteries in umbilical cord is surrounded by ---

Wharton's Jelly