T1 - Menstrual Cycle (Josh) Flashcards Preview

Maternal-Newborn (Josh) > T1 - Menstrual Cycle (Josh) > Flashcards

Flashcards in T1 - Menstrual Cycle (Josh) Deck (49):
1

What are the phases of the Endometrial Cycle?

Proliferation

Secretory

Ischemic

Menstrual

2

Endometrial Cycle is influenced by which mechanism?

Hypothalmic-Pituitary-Ovarian Axis feedback mechanism

3

What are the hormones during the Endometrial Cycle?

Estrogen

Progesterone

4

Which phase of Endometrial Cycle?

A significant rich layer of myometrium and blood vessels develops to cover the endometrial cavity.

Proliferative Phase

5

Which phase of Endometrial Cycle?

characterized by a deepening and maturing of the succulent layer of endometrium for implantation.

Secretory Phase

6

Which phase of Endometrial Cycle?

First day of menstral cycle is day 1

Shedding of functional 2/3 of endometrium

Ischemic Phase

7

The Proliferative Phase correlates w/ which phase of the Ovarian Cycle?

Follicular Phase

8

The Proliferative Phase depends on the dominance of which hormone?

estrogen

which is stimulated from ovarian follicles

9

Can the Proliferative Phase adequately support life?

no

cannot adequately support an implanted ovum

10

Which phase creates the layer than supports the developing zygote?

Secretory phase

11

During the Secretory Phase, the corpus luteum produces which hormone?

Progesterone

12

What happens during the secretory phase if pregnancy does NOT occur?

corpus luteum regresses

ischemia of endometrium develops and cyclic menstrual bleeding begins

13

What are the phases of the Ovarian Cycle?

Follicular Phase (Pre-ovulatory)

Ovulation

Luteal (Post-ovulatory)

14

Toward the end of the normal menstrual cycle, what happens to blood levels of ovarian hormones (estrogen and progesterone)?

decline

*** these low levels trigger the hypothalamus to begin a new ovarian cycle by secreting GnRH

15

When the hypothalamus releases Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone (GnRH), where does it go?

to the anterior pituitary to stimulate the release of LH and FSH, which go to the ovary

16

During the Follicular Phase, which hormone is dominant?

FSH

***stimulates the development of ovarian graffian follicles

***one of these follicles develops into a mature ova

***surge of LH causes this mature ova to be released from ovary

17

What does the surge of LH do?

causes the mature ova to be released from ovary

18

Why would the developing follicles produce estrogen and progesterone in large amounts?

these hormones prepare the endometrial lining of the uterus for implantation of a zygote

19

When does ovulation occur?

14 + or - 2 days before next menstrual flow

20

What sparks ovulation?

marked surge of LH and a smaller peak of estrogen


***when these hormones peak, ovulation occurs within 24-36 hrs

21

Clinical signs of Ovulation

 BBT: sharp increase in body temperature.

 Vaginal mucus becomes thin and stretchable (spinnbarkeit).

 Cervical mucus Ph changes from acidic…to more alkaline.

 Mittelschmerz a subjective feeling of slight abdominal discomfort.

 Progesterone plasma level increases to about 3 mg/mL (about 3 days post ovulation)

22

During the Luteal Phase, the corpus luteum secretes lots of Estrogen and Progesterone.

Which is dominant?

Progesterone

***peak about 8-10 days after ovulation, about the time a fertilized ovum would be implanted in the endometrium if pregnancy has occuredd

23

Avg menstrual cycle is --- days.

28

24

Menstrual flow normally lasts --

4-7 days

25

Therapeutic mgmt for Dysmenorrhea during menstruation?

Mild analgesics

Hormonal therapy (birth control)

Heating pad on abdomen

Rest and mild exercises

****note: birth control is best unless trying to get pregnant

26

Oral contraceptives may --- menstrual flow.

IUDs may --- menstrual flow.

decrease

increase

27

S/S of Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS)

HA

Bloating

Tenderness and swelling of breasts

Food cravings

Depression

Irritability

28

--- is an early sign of pregnancy or can be a symptom of menopause or some pathology.

Primary Amenorrhea

29

When is menopause diagnosed?

1 year after last menstrual period

30

What is the transition period during which ovarian function and hormone production decline?

Climacteric

31

What type of amenorrhea is this?

reflects a problem in the central hypothalamic-pituitary axis so that hormone production is inadequate.

Hypoganoadotrophic Amenorrhea


****May also be related to stress or inappropriate body fat to lean ratio.

32

Treatment for Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding

Estrogen Therapy

Danazol (synthetic testosterone)

33

--- is tissue resembling endometrial tissue, but located OUTSIDE the endometrium in the pelvis.

Endometriosis

***painful

34

Treatment for Endometriosis

Pain mgmt

Hormonal antagonist to suppress endogenous estrogen/GnRH/FSH/LH

Surgical intervention (TAHBSO)

35

What triggers the Ovarian/Hypothalamus/Pituitary feedback mechanism?

Low blood levels of estrogen trigger the hypothalamus to start the menstrual cycle all over again.

Hypothalamus secretes GnRH -->

stimulates the pituitary gland -->

Anterior Pituitary secretes FSH and LH -->

stimulates a primary follicle on the ovary to begin maturing.

36

Anterior Pituitary Hormones:

--- causes the primary follicle to mature.

--- surge causes the follicle to be released from surface of ovum.

FSH

LH

37

After ovulation, what is the follicle crater called? q

corpus luteum

38

What is the function of the Corpus Luteum?

secretes copious amonts of estrogen and progesterone (progesterone is dominant)

39

The Follicular Phase of the ovarian cycle corresponds with which phase of the endometrial cycle?

Proliferative

***both are preovulatory

40

What hormone is dominant in the preovulatory stage (Follicular and Proliferative)?

Estrogen

41

The ---- phase of the ovarian cycle and the secretory phase of the endometrial cycle occur simultaneously.

Luteal

42

What hormone is dominant in the secretory phase?

progesterone

43

Which stage of the endometrial cycle can support an implanted zygote?

secretory

44

In what three places is the hormone estrogen produced?

Ovarian follicle

Corpus Luteum

Placenta

45

Ovulation occurs at the end of which phases?

Proliferative (Endometrial Cycle)

Follicular (Ovarian Cycle)

46

Amenorrhea:

Which circumstances should be evaluated?

1) absence of both menarche and secondary sexual characteristics by age 14

2) absence of menarche by age 16

3) 3 to 6 mth absence of menses after a period of menstruation

47

Secondary Dysmenorrhea

acquired menstrual pain that develops later in life than primary dysmenorrhea, typically after age 25

48

What are S/E of Danazol (synthetic testosterone)?

masculinizing traits (weight gain, edema, decreased breast size, oily skin, hirsutism, deep voice)

amenorrhea

hot flashes

vaginal dryness

insomnia

decreased libido

migraine

dizziness

fatigue

depression

49

Danazol is contraindicated in whom?

liver disease

***use w/ caution with cardiac and renal disease

***used less frequently b/c of side effects