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1

What are the references used for TVA?

FM 1-02. Operational Terms and Graphics. 21 Sep 2004.

JP 1-02. DoD Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms. 15 Aug 2012.

FM 3-60. The Targeting Process. 26 November 2010.

JP 3-60. Joint Targeting. 31 January 2013.

2

What are Targeting Objectives?

Describes the effects of target attack on the enemy
capabilities:
Limit
Disrupt
Delay
Divert
Destroy
Damage

3

Describe Effects On Target.

Attack Criteria used to
Determine the degree or
duration of effects on
specific target:
DESTROY
NEUTRALIZE
SUPPRESS
HARASS

4

What is Target Development?

Target Development is the process of providing direct combat information, targeting data, and correlated targeting information.

5

What are the different phases of Target Development?

Analysis
Validation
Documentation
Nomination
Collection and
Exploitation

6

What are some examples of Target Development Objectives?

To divert, limit, disrupt, delay, damage or destroy enemy capabilities.

Provide direct targeting data to commanders for immediate fires and maneuver in close operations.

Collect and correlate all source information to develop targeting data to support operations.

7

Describe the Decide, Detect, Deliver, and Assess (D3A) Methodology for Target Value Analysis.

D3A -

TVA
- generates High Vaue Target (HVT) sets for a specific enemy COA.
- is a detailed analysis of emnemy doctrine, TTPs, equipment, org system, and expected behavior patterns for a selected COA.
- id's potential HVT sets associated with critical enemy functions that could interfere with friendly COAs or are vital to enemy success.
- is an analytical tool to be used in the Decide phase of D3A.
- utilize Target Information Folders (TIFs) in order to develop HVTs for a specific enemy COA.

8

Describe the D3A methodology in relationship with target value analysis.

Decide -> TSS/AGM/HPTL (Who / what to attack)
Detect -> RDR/ UAS/JSTARS (How to acquire)
Deliver -> TSS/AGM/HPTL (How to attack)
Assess -> Weapon system Desired effects (BDA)

9

Describe the Decide function.

The decision function process is focused through the development of a prioritized list.
Decide function is the most important area for future planning.
The list specifies:
–What is required to defeat the target?
–When can targets be detected and consequently attacked?
–Who can detect the targets and conduct BDA?
–Who can engage the target?
–How must the target be engaged?
–Which targets need BDA?

10

Describe the Detect function.

S-2 is the main figure in directing the collection management efforts to identify targets.

G2/S2 must work closely with the FSOs to determine accurate, identifiable, and timely requirements.

Focus on the high payoff targets (HPTs) designated during the decision function.

11

Describe the Deliver function.

The deliver function of the targeting process does the following:
–Executes the attack guidance matrix
–Supports the commander's battle plan
–Location and identification of established HPTs

Tactical Questions:
Time of Attack
Desired Effects
Attack System Used

Technical Questions:
Type/ Number of Munitions
Unit conducting Attack
Response time of Attacking Unit

12

Describe the Assess function.

The assess function is the last step of the targeting
process. Its primary purpose is to provide
assessment /BDA.

The assess function of the targeting process answers the following:
–Was the mission successful?
–Was the correct target hit?
–Did the munitions function correctly?
–Were the desired results achieved?
–Does the target, or other nearby target, merit additional strikes?
–Was the attack effective enough to merit a continued campaign?

13

List the Tools and Worksheets involed in TVA.

Target Development
Attack Criteria
HVT - High-Value Target
HVI - High-Value Individual
HPT- High-Payoff Target
TST - Time-Sensitive Target
HPTL - High-Payoff Target List
TSS - Target Selection Standard
AGM - Attack Guidance Matrix
TSM - Target Sync Matrix

Note: The ultimate product or end state of TVA are the HTPL, TSS, and the AGM.

14

What is a HVT/HVI?

Targets / Individuals deemed important to the Enemy Commander for the successful accomplishment of his mission.

15

What is a HPT?

Targets whose loss to the enemy will significantly contribute to the success of the Friendly Commander.

16

When do HVTs become HPTs?

When these targets can be successfully acquired, are vulnerable to attack, and that such an attack supports the commander's scheme of maneuver.

17

Describe High-Value Targets versus High-Payoff Targets.

HVT (S2)
- Those assets essential to the success of the enemy.
- Developed by the S2 during the IPB process.
- Too often the S2 will identify all enemy assets as HVTs.

HPT (S3)
- HVTs that must be attacked in order to
accomplish the friendly commander’s
mission.
- Identified by specific event or phase in priority
Order.
- Developed by the Targeting Team during MDMP.

18

Describe Time-Sensitive Target (TST)s.

TSTs are "JFC designated targets" requiring immediate response because it is a highly lucrative, fleeting target of opportunity or it poses (or will soon pose) a danger to frindly forces.

These are not designated at levels below the JFC.

19

Describe Target Selection Standards (TSSs).

Are criteria applied to enemy activity (acquisitions and battlefield information).

Used in deciding whether the activity is a target.

20

Describe the Attack Guidance Matrix (AGM).

Approved by the commander

Addresses which targets will be attacked, how, when, and the desired effects

The AGM consists of columns for the following:
–Specific HPT
–Timing of attack
–How targets are attacked
–Target categories
–Restrictions

21

Describe the High-Payoff Target List (HPTL).

The HPTL identifies the HPTs by phases in the battle and order of priority

Target value is usually the greatest factor contributing to target payoff.

22

What agency designates all time sensitive targets?

The Joint Forces Commander (JFC).

23

Describe the Target Value Analysis Process.

1) Request the CDRs targeting guidance relative to the COA

2) Provide input for the HVT list based on the S2 estimate of the enemy situation
- Develop the HPTL

3) Integrate finding high relative worth target sets into unit's priority intelligence requirements
- ISR Plan
- ISR Sync

4) Coord with the S2 for planning NAIs,TAIs, and decision points
- War-game the COAs
- Value/Rank the target sets

5) Complete the analysis with the final HPTL

6) Execute
- Conduct Assessment
- BDA, MOEs/MOPs, Re-attack

24

What does the HPTL do?

HPTL prioritizes list of targets.

25

What does the ISR Plan do?

Answers the CDR’s PIRS to include HPT’s.
Supports the acquisition of HPT’s.

26

What does the TSS do?

Addresses the accuracy or other specific criteria
that must be met before a target can be attacked.

27

What does the AGM do?

Once approved by the CDR, the AGM addresses which targets will be attacked, how, when and the desired effects.

28

What is Target Value Analysis?

Target Value Analysis involves a detailed analysis of enemy doctrine, tactics, equipment, organizations, and expected behavior for a selected COA. The target value analysis process identifies potential HVT sets associated with critical enemy functions that could interfere with the friendly COA or that are vital to enemy success.

The Target Value Analysis process provides a relative ranking of target sets. The war game begins when the target analyst in the G-2 or the intelligence staff officer (S-2) plays the role of the threat commander or acts as the ISR officer.