Flashcards in Technical Deck (72)
What is a standard climb?
Standard IFR climb gradient is 200 feet per nautical mile
What are standard holding speeds?
-At or below 6,000ft is 200 KIAS
-6,0001 ft to 14,000ft is 230 KIAS
-above 14,000ft is 265 KIAS
Below 14,000ft legs are 1 min, above are 1.5min
What is the difference between flyby and flyover waypoints?
Fly-by waypoint is used when an aircraft should begin a turn to the next course prior to reaching the waypoint separating the two route segments. This is known as turn anticipation. A fly-over waypoint must be crossed vertically by an aircraft.
What us the reciprocal of 266?
Dumping fuel at 1500pounds/hour, how long to dump 16500 pounds?
How long to travel 90nm, with 190TAS and 60kts headwind?
When should you start down from FL350 to cross fix at 12,000ft?
What is MSA?
The minimum Sector Altitude is the lowest altitude which may be used which will provide a minimum clearance of 300m (1,000ft) above all objects located in the area contained within a sector of a circle of 46 km (25 nm) radius centered on a radio aid to navigation
From an approach plate, what is the number inside the “()” brackets beside DA?
Decision height, it is measured in AGL.
What is MEA?
Minimum enroute altitude is the lowest altitude to be flown in route that provides
-reception of navigation aids and two-way communication
-safe clearance from obstacles in the sector
-adherence to ATC or local procedures
What is MOCA?
Minimum obstacle clearance altitude provides horizontal and vertical separation and VOR reception up to 22 miles
Why is the localizer more sensitive on a back-course? Why do we put in the front course?
Reverse sensing and because the localizer antenna is closer to the airplane.
When would you want two alternates?
3585 or if both airports are marginal(defined by ops specs)
When is an alternate airport required?
1 hour before to 1
Hour after estimated arrival time it is below 2000 ft ceiling and 3 miles visibility.
To use airport as an alternate, it has to have
For non precision approach- 2 miles and 800ft
Precision approach- 2 miles and 600ft
What are the requirements for a takeoff alternate?
Required if weather at the departure airport is below the landing minimums.
2 engine aircraft- not more than one hour from the departure airport at normal cruising speed with one engine inoperative
3 or more engines- not more than 2 hours from departure airport at normal cruising speed with one engine inoperative
When do you have to stop at an ILS hold line?
Ceiling less than 800ft and/or visibility 2 miles
What us the tower’s NORDO light gun signal to be cleared to land?
What are lost communication procedures?
A:last assigned route
E: Expected route in the EFC assigned
F: filed flight plan route
Altitude(Highest of the following):
M: minimum altitude for IFR operations(MEA)
E: last assigned altitude ATC has advised you to expect
A: last assigned
What are the IFR fuel requirements?
Fly to destination, alternate, and then 45 min at normal cruise speed
Explain hoe a pitot static system works?
The pitot-static system works by measuring and comparing static pressure and dynamic pressure.
What does PJE mean in the NOTAMS?
It means parachute jumping exercise
Based on METAR, what is the ceiling?
The height above the Earth’s surface of the lowest layer of clouds that is reported as broken, overcast, ir obscuration.(more than half the sky)
What is a grid MORA?
Provide obstacle clearance within a latitude and longitude grid block. They clear all terrain/obstructions by 1000ft in areas where the highest elevations are 5000 feet MSL or lower and 2000ft when 5001 ft MSL or higher.
What does a “CLIMB VIA” clearance mean?
-Comply with the lateral path of the SID
-Comply with all published speed restrictions
-Comply with all published altitude restrictions
When could I receive a climb via clearance?
Either your initial ATC departure clearance
Or as an airborne clearance
I receive Pre Departure Clearances (PDC). How will I know if I have received a climb via clearance?
The phrase “CLIMB VIA” will be included in the body of the PDC
I am cleared to climb via a SID with a charted “TOP ALTITUDE.” What altitude am I cleared to?
The chartes “TOP ALTITUDE,” unless ATC assigns a different altitude.
How do I determine what altitude to climb to if I receive a climb via clearance?
The clearance limit altitude or “TOP ALTITUDE,” of the procedure will be included in the narrative of the chart, such as “MAINTAIN FL190.” You would climb ti maintain that altitude while complying with all published restrictions.
What if the SID does not have published restrictions or a published “TOP ALTITUDE,” what altitude will I climb to?
Your initial ATC clearance will contain “MAINTAIN” followed by the altitude to climb and maintain.
I am cleared to “CLIMB VIA SID,” but the controller (ord PDC) states “EXCEPT MAINTAIN” followed by an altitude. What altitude am I cleared tio and do I have to comply with published altitude restrictions during my climb?
You are cleared to the altitude that ATC assigned and you must comply with all other altitude and speed restrictions unless explicitly cancelled by ATC.
I am cleared ti “CLIMB Via SID.” What if there is a published altitude restriction at a fix that is higher than the charted “TOP ALTITUDE”?
You are only cleared to the charted “TOP ALTITUDE” contained in the narrative of the procedure, unless ATC assigns a different altitude.
What if I depart on a climb via clearance and later given a clearance to “climb and maintain” an altitude, should I comply with any published altitude restrictions?
No you are expected to vacate your current altitude and commence an unrestricted climb to comply with the clearance. Speed restrictions remain in effect unless the controller explicitly cancels or amends the speed restrictions.
I depart on a climb via clearance with a “TOP ALTITUDE” of 15,000 feet and departure controller says “CLIMB via the departure, EXCEPT MAINTAIN one three thousand. Do I comply with any published altitude restrictions prior to reaching 13,000?
Yes all published restrictions including speed, are mandatory.
I am on a climb via clearance and the controller vectors me off the procedure. Do I continue to “CLIMB VIA”?
No you are laterally and vertically off the procedure. The controller will issue an altitude to maintain and provide a further “expect” clearance.
*Request an altitude to maintain if the controller does not provide one
What if I receive a “CLEARED” or “CLEARED Via” clearance, am I permitted to meet any published altitudes?
No, only“Climb Via” clearance gives you the vertical authorization to climb and comply with the published altitude restrictions.
*compliance with published speed restrictions are required
What if there are “EXPECT”altitudes published on the SID?
They are for planning purposes only.
What does a “DESCENT VIA” clearance mean?
-Comply with the lateral path of the star
-Comply with all published speed restrictions
-Comply with all published altitude restrictions
I am cleared to “DESCEND VIA” a STAR. What altitude am I cleared to?
The charted bottom altitude of the procedure unless ATC assigns a different altitude.
How do I determine the bottom altitude of a star?
It is the last published altitude on the star or star runway transition that you are assigned.
If an instrument approach procedure connects to a STAR, are the instrument approach procedure altitudes part of the star?
No, you must receive an appropriate approach clearance from ATC before descending below the bottom altitude of the STAR on a Descend Via clearance.
Are MEAs/MOCAs considered altitude restrictions for descend vis purposes?
No. MEAs and MOCAs are not considered altitude restrictions for the purpose of a descend bis clearance. Only “AT”, “AT or Above,” and “At or Below” and “Window” restrictions published at a waypoint/fix are considered altitude restrictions for the purpose of a “Descend Via” clearance. A pilot should not descend to a segment MEA or MOCA when cleared to “Descend Via.”
Should I begin an immediate descent when issued a “Descend Via” clearance?
You are permitted to descend at your discretion in order to meet the published restrictions. However, a premature descent could impact slacking with other arrivals and can reduce the potential fuel savings of flying the appropriate profile.
Can ATC issue a “Descend Via” clearance for a star that does not have a published crossing restrictions? Some STARS do not have crossing restrictions but only MEAs and or MOCAs.
A “Descend Vis” clearance will not be issued on a STAR that does not have published altitude restrictions.
I am cleared to “descend via” a STAR, but the controller adds “EXCEPT MAKNTAIN.” What altitude am I cleared to and do I have to comply with published altitude restrictions during my descent?
You must comply with all published altitude and speed constraints until reaching the assigned altitude, unless explicitly cancelled by ATC.
I’m on a descend vis clearance and the controller vectors me off the procedure. Do i continue to “descend via?”
No. You are off laterally and vertically off the procedure. The controller will issue an altitude to maintain and provide a further expect clearance.
*request an altitude to maintain if the controller does not provide one
What if there are “EXPECT” altitudes published on the STAR?
Expect altitudes are for planning purposes only, you are not expected to comply with published “EXPECT” restrictions.
What if I am given a clearance to “Descend and Maintain” an altitude?
You are expected to vacate your current altitude and commence an unrestricted descent to comply with the clearance. For aircraft already descending on a STAR, published altitude restrictions are deleted unless reissued by ATC. Speed restrictions remain in effect unless the controller explicitly cancels or amends the speed restrictions.
What if I receive a “Cleared” or “Cleared Via” clearance, am I permitted to descend to meet any published altitudes?
NO. Only “Descend Via” clearance gives you the vertical authorization. The other 2 examples are a lateral clearance.
I just received a descend via clearance from En Route ATC (ARTCC) which included “Runway 26 transition.” Is that also my landing runway?
NO. ARTCC’s cannot assign a landing runway. However, many issue the “runway transition” with the “Descend Via” clearance. The approach (TRACON) controller will assign the actual or expected landing runway.
Will the assignment of a runway transition always include a runway number?
NO. You may receive a directional clearance such as “Landing North.” Generally, chart notes would indicate the runway or runways that are associated with the “landing direction” runway transition. Again, the TRACON controller will assign the actual runway.
I am on an ATC assigned vector and have been issued a speed assignment. Subsequently, ATC clears me direct to a waypoint on a SID and instructs me to “Climb Via” SID. What speed do I maintain?
If the controller did not provide any additional “qualifying” instructions, such as “maintain two hundred fifty knots until (WP Name),” you may adjust speed at your discretion, but are required to comply with any upcoming speed restrictions.
Just after crossing a speed restricted fix of 280 KT on a STAR, ATC assigns me a heading and altitude to maintain, what speed should I maintain?
The published speed is cancelled. Speed is at pilot’s discretion unless ATC has assigned a speed.
What is 91.117?
Unless otherwise authorized by the Administrator, no person may operate an aircraft below 10,000 feet MSL at an indicated airspeed of more than 250 knots.
Just after crossing a speed restricted fix of 230 KT on a SID, ATC assigns me a heading and altitude to maintain. However, what speed should I maintain?
In this case, you have passed the waypoint with the published speed restriction. You can accelerate up to 250 KIAS below 10,000 feet MSL. If you are re-cleared on the SID, comply with any published speeds, unless the controller advises you to “delete speed restrictions,” or assigns you a speed to maintain.
I am established on a STAR. The controller clears me to “descend via” the STAR, followed by “maintain three hundred knots until ZUMBA.” ZUMBA has a published speed of 280 KTS. Do I cross ZUMBA at 300 KTS or the published 280 KTS?
In this scenario, the controller specifically wants you to cross ZUMBA at 300 KIAS. After ZUMBA, you are then expected to comply with any subsequent restrictions.
I am on an ATC assigned vector and have been issued a heading and altitude to maintain. Subsequently, ATC clears me direct to a fix on a STAR, followed by “descend via” the STAR. The direct to fix has published altitude and speed restrictions. Do I need to comply with the speed restriction in addition to the published altitude at the fix?
YES. However, if the controller did not provide any additional “qualifying” instructions, such as “maintain three hundred knots until (WP Name),” you may adjust speed at your discretion; but are required to comply with speed restriction published at fix specified in the “direct-to” clearance along with any upcoming published speed restrictions.
I am on a STAR in level flight. The controller instructs me to “maintain three zero zero knots.” Later, the controller clears me to “Descend Via” the STAR. I understand that I now have to comply with any published speeds on the STAR, but what speed do I maintain until the first constraint?
If the controller did not provide any additional “qualifying” instructions, such as “maintain three zero zero knots until (WP Name),” you may adjust speed at your discretion. However, you should not make excessive speed variations without advising ATC.
ATC issues me a “descend via” clearance, followed by “maintain two - eight zero knots.” Does this cancel any upcoming speed restrictions?
YES. ATC expects you to maintain the assigned speed, until instructed to “resume published speeds” or “delete speed restrictions.” However, you are not relieved from complying with 14 CFR Section 91.117.
I am “descending via” a STAR and the controller later instructs me to “maintain two five zero knots.” Subsequently, I am handed off to another frequency. There is a 210 KT speed restriction ahead. Should I plan to comply with it?
NO. A controller’s instructions to “maintain” a speed cancels any subsequent speeds. However, on initial contact, you should advise the controller you were assigned 250 KTS.
I am currently flying a STAR (or SID) without published altitudes, but it does have a published speed restriction. Am I required to comply with it, even though the controller has not instructed me to do so?
YES. You are always required to comply with published speeds if the STAR (or SID) is part of your ATC clearance. As a reminder, published altitudes are not authorized unless you have received a “descend via” or “climb via” clearance.
The procedure I am established on has an “EXPECT” speed . Should I comply with it?
NO. “EXPECT” speeds (and altitudes) are for planning purposes and are not required unless the ATC issues the speed.
How do I comply with published speeds on a departure?
Think of each published speed restriction as a “DO NOT EXCEED” speed limit until you have crossed the associated waypoint. You may then accelerate so as not to exceed the next speed restriction (if applicable). After meeting the last published speed, accelerate per 91.117 and/or the appropriate speed profile for your aircraft.
How should I comply with published speeds on a STAR?
Treat each published speed as a controller issuing you the speed at the waypoint associated with the speed restriction. ATC’s expectation is that you will decelerate at the appropriate distance, commensurate with normal aircraft deceleration characteristics, in order to cross the waypoint at the published speed. Ten knots of speed reduction per nautical mile is a general rule of thumb to use. It is not expected that the pilot will maintain speed until the last possible moment and then use all available deceleration devices to rapidly slow to meet the speed restriction.
What if I cross a waypoint with a 280 KT restriction, followed by a 250 KT restriction 20 miles ahead. Can I begin slowing to 250 KIAS right after meeting the 280 KT restriction.
NO. Published speeds are generally used to provide predictable traffic flows for ATC. It is important for pilots to slow the aircraft a reasonable distance from the next restriction. Excessively early speed reductions can cause spacing compression and a potential loss of separation for controllers.
The last published speed on the STAR is 210 KT. After I cross the speed restriction waypoint, can I go ahead and slow at my discretion?
NO. On a STAR, the last published speed is the same as a controller assigning you the speed. You should not decelerate until the controller has cleared you for an approach or authorized you to slow. You should always request a slower speed, if operating conditions dictate. Note: Be cognizant of the 200 KT maximum speed permissible when operating below the floor of Class B Airspace – 14 CFR 91.117.
I’m established on the STAR. The en route controller (ARTCC) assigned me a Mach of .75. Later, I receive a “descend via” the STAR. Can I fly the speed I choose until the first published speed restriction?
YES. If the controller did not provide any additional “qualifying” instructions, such as “maintain Mach point seven-five until (WP Name),” you may adjust speed at your discretion; but are required to comply with any upcoming published speed restrictions. However, you should not make extensive speed variations without advising ATC.
My company uses a FMS Cost Index as part of our fuel savings program. The descent speed for my aircraft Cost Index is 252 KIAS. I received a “descend via” clearance and the first published speed is 280 KT. Can I fly my Cost Index speed, since it doesn’t exceed the 280 KT published speed?
NO. All published speeds are mandatory, unless otherwise cleared by ATC. You must take the necessary actions to meet the published speed. Note: If the first published speed on the arrival is higher than your Cost Index descent speed, plan to transition to the published speed out of your Mach descent speed.
My company uses a descent speed of 290 KIAS for the aircraft I fly. The first published speed on the STAR is 270 KT. Can I use my company descent speed?
NO. You have to comply with all published speeds, unless otherwise cleared by ATC.
My aircraft’s MMO/VMO (e.g. VMO = 250 KIAS) is below a speed restriction published on the STAR (e.g. (WP Name) At 280 KT), or because of a MEL/CDL limitation, I am unable to comply with a speed restriction published on a STAR. Am I prohibited from flying the STAR?
NO. However, ATC may query you concerning the speed approaching the restriction. Advise the controller of the need to maintain the lower speed.
The controller had issued a speed for me to maintain. Later, the controller says “resume normal speed.” Can I fly a speed at my discretion?
Yes, but a controller can only issue that clearance if you are not on a published portion of a procedure that contains speed restrictions. If there are published speeds, the correct clearance would be “delete speed restrictions” or “resume published speeds.”
Why are Grid MORAs in green or maroon?
Values 10,000 feet and greater are maroon. Values less than 10,000 feet are green.