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Flashcards in Techniques Deck (75):
0

A saline contrast bubble study is performed during the TEE, need to detect?

Cardiac shunts

1

The closed central portion of the interatrial septum in the adult is called?

Fossa ovalis

2

Which has the most impact on color Doppler jet size?

Doppler gain

3

At which temperature range is to unsafe to use a TEE probe?

40-45c (highest temp given, overheating can cause esophageal tissue damage)

4

Which valve event ends isovolumic relaxation?

Mitral opening

5

The area of the aorta between the top of the descending aorta and the arch is called the?

Isthmus

6

The anterior and apical wall of the LV is supplied by which coronary artery?

Left anterior descending (LAD)

7

The normal mean left atrial pressure is comparable to which of the following pressures?

Left ventricular diastolic

8

What percent of the left ventricular filing normally occurs in the first third of diastole?

70%

9

In a patient w COPD which frequency transducer would most likely result in the best images?

1.75 MHz

10

Which valve event ends isovolumic contraction?

Aortic opening

11

Which is the most posterior cardiac valve in the chest?

Mitral

12

The moderator band is seen in which of the following chambers?

Right ventricle

13

What type of murmur is associated with aortic stenosis?

Systolic crescendo decrescendo murmur

14

The best 2D view for diagnosing mitral valve prolapse is?

Parasternal long axis (PLAX)

15

On m-mode echocardiography the left atrial dimension is measured at?

End systole

16

The second heart sound involves the?

Semilunar valves

17

In echocardiography when Is a raphe typically seen?

Bicuspid aortic valve (a raphe is the fussed line between 2 of the 3 aortic leaflets in a typical bicuspid valve. Usually 86% between the R and the L aortic leaflets

18

The best view for evaluating a pt w suspected coarctation of the aorta is?

Suprasternal long axis of the aortic arch

19

Te best 2d view for evaluating a pt w a suspected PDA is?

Parasternal short axis of the aorta

20

Visualization of the lateral wall of the LV is best when the sonographer uses which of the following views?

Ap 4ch

21

With normal pressures which valve lesion would have the highest Doppler velocity?

Mitral regurg

22

Which standard 2-D transthoracic view typically allows viewing of the left atrial appendage LAA?

Apical 2CH

23

What type of murmur is associated with mitral valve prolapse?

Mid systolic click w a late systolic murmur

24

The best Doppler view for evaluating the severity of pulmonic stenosis is?

Psax at the base

25

What type of murmur is associated with aortic stenosis?

Systolic crescendo decrecendo murmur

26

Externally where is the left anterior descending coronary artery found?

Anterior interventricular sulcus

27

Which of the following can be seen on echo and is considered a normal remnant of fetal circulation?

Eustachian valve (at the junction of the IVC and RA is often seen on echo)

28

Which of the following increases left ventricular afterload?

Systemic hypertension. increases left ventricular afterload or the work that the ventricle has to do.

29

The central opening of the interatrial septum during fetal circulation is called the?

Foramen ovale

30

on M mode echocardiography the left ventricular diastolic dimension is measured at?

The start of the QRS

31

Which of the following forms a flap at the level of the foramen ovale that controls the flow between the right atrium and the left atrium?

Septum primum

32

Fetal blood oxygenation occurs in the maternal?

Placenta

33

Which Echo window is used in viewing the inferior vena cava?

Subcostal

34

Color flow Doppler converts flow frequencies into different colors, it's appearance is based on all of the following except?

Gray scale map used

35

What causes a left parasternal friction rub?

Pericarditis

36

Adult chest wall echo probes generally operate with what frequency range?

2.5 - 4.0

37

Which is the most posterior chamber of the heart?

Left atrium

38

Which valve event starts at isovolumic contraction?

Mitral closure

39

Which valve event ends isovolumic relaxation?

Mitral opening

40

The resistance against which the left ventricle contracts is referred to as?

Afterload

41

The right atrium receives unoxygenated blood from which of the following Except:?

Right pulmonary veins

42

The mitral valve apparatus includes all if the following structures Except:?

Non-coronary cusp

43

In laminar flow, mean velocity is:?

Roughly equal to maximum velocity

44

What is the interventricular septal motion in a patient with LBBB

Dyskinetic septal

45

Which is the most anterior cardiac valve in the chest?

Pulmonic valve

46

In fetal circulation the vessel that shunts blood R to L between pulmonary artery & aorta is?

Ductus arteriosus

47

All of the following may result in jugular venous distension Except:?

Hypovolemia

48

Which cardiac valve lies closest to the apex of the heart?

Tricuspid valve

49

In PT's with severe mitral stenosis what % of the left ventricle filling might be contributed by atrial systole?

50%. Abnormal with MS

50

Each of the aortic valve cusps is associated with:?

A sinus of valsalva

51

A pericardial effusion will be seen between these two layers?

Visceral & parietal

52

Which of the following choices would not be used to correct for a pulsed wave Doppler aliasing?

Use a higher frequency probe

53

In normal development which is the last to close?

Foramen ovale

54

When using the PEDOF cw Doppler probe, the cardiac sonographer must rely on?

Spectral display in comparison to the EKG?

55

A PT who has higher blood pressure in Right arm than the Left arm may have:?

Coarctation of the aorta

56

On M-mode echo, late diastolic dip seen on the pulmonic valve is caused by:?

Pulmonic stenosis

57

To perform cw Doppler using PEDOF probe, how many piezoelectric crystals are required?

Two

58

The closed central portion of the interatrial septum in the adult is called?

Fossa ovalis

59

Fetal blood H2o occurs in the?

Placenta

60

What can you do to reduce ghosting in color Doppler?

Increase wall filter

61

What causes a left Parasternal friction rub?

Pericarditis

62

Another name for the right ventricular outflow tract?

Infundibulum

63

In normal pressures, which valve lesion would have the lowest velocity?

Pulmonary regurg

64

Best Doppler view to evaluate peak velocity of tricuspid regurg is?

Apical 4

65

Which of the following increases left ventricular afterload?

Systemic hypertension

66

The left ventricular diastolic pressure is comparable to what other pressure?

Mean left atrial pressure

67

Which is the most posterior cardiac valve?

Mitral

68

On M-mode echo the left atrial dimension is measured at?

End systole

69

What type of murmur is associated with aortic stenosis?

Systolic crescendo/decrescendo

70

The pressure in LV at end diastole is referred to as?

Preload

71

A treatment for constrictive pericarditis is?

Pericardiectomy

72

Causes for constrictive pericarditis are?

Chronic pericarditis, prior pericardiotomy, TB or tumor involvement, radiation therapy & long term steroid use

73

Where should saline contrast be injected in order to diagnosis a persistent left superior vena cava ?

Left arm

74

Which is the best echo view for assessing the anterior walls of the left ventricle?

Apical 2 chamber view