Terms Flashcards Preview

7/13/15 NBCOT Exam > Terms > Flashcards

Flashcards in Terms Deck (138):
1

visual discrimination

the ability to discriminate dominant features of objects as to discriminate position, shapes/forms/colors.

2

form constancy

match the shape of the stimulus though it might be smaller/bigger/darker than the stimuli

3

visual perception

the way the brain interprets sensory information received from the environment. The information is processed by cognitive functions which cause the pt to respond

4

visual closure

ability to perceive a whole figure when only fragments are presented.

5

spatial relationship/spatial orientation

ability to orient one's body in space an to perceive the positions of objects in pictures/figures/patterns that are rotated

6

figure-ground

ability to distinguish an object from background objects

7

Diplopia

double vision

8

Bradykinesia

Slowed motor movements

9

Dysmetria

Decreased coordination of movements

10

Rigidity

Muscle stiffness

11

Festinating Gait

Small rapid steps resulting from a forward-tilted head and trunk posture.

12

Muscle Atrophy

Decrease in the mass of a muscle.

13

Isometric Exercises

Are muscle tightening exercises performed with no muscle joint movement. Their action is to increase circulation for healing and strengthening muscles with minimal joint irritation.

14

Thrombosis

Formation of a clot in the blood that blocks or partially blocks a blood vessel.

15

Unilateral Neglect

Failure to pay attention to one side of the body

16

Backward chaining

the therapist performs the first several steps of a task and the pt is able to complete the last step of the task

17

Forward Chaining

Therapist encourages pt to complete the first step of the task while the therapist completes the rest of the task

18

Phantom sensation

A sensation that appears to occur in the missing limb

19

transradial amputation

below the elbow

20

transmetacarpal amputation

below the wrist

21

Passive TD - Amputee

nonfunctional hand worn for cosmetic purposes

22

Active TB - Amputee

body-powered, externally powered amputation

23

Contractures

Contracture is an abnormal shortening or tightening of connective tissue or MUSCLE that impedes proper movement of a JOINT

24

Prothesis wearing schedule

initial wearing time of 15-30 minutes-examine area for redness

25

Arthroplasty

joint replacement

26

Osteopenia

reversible weakening of the bone and is a precursor to osteoporosis

27

Agnosia

Inability to interpret sensations hence not able to recognize things.

28

Aphasia

Absence or impairment of ability to communicate through writing, speech or signs.

29

Loss of Executive Function

Impairment to think abstractly, plan, initiate, sequence, monitor and stop complex behaviors.

30

Body Image

The overall mental picture of what one's body looks like not how one feels about their body's appearance

31

Self-Image

Impression of 'who one is' based on thoughts and feelings about oneself.

32

Atrial Septal deficits

"wet lungs" to much blood sent to the lungs. Can lead to respiratory infection and poor exercise tolerance.

33

Ventricular septal deficits

Feeding difficulties, shortness of breath, increased respiratory infections, fatigue and delayed growth can occur

34

dyspnea

labored breathing; shortness of breath

35

Tetralogy of Fallot - Decrease pulmonary blood flow

Symptoms - central cyanosis, coagulation defects, clubbing of fingers/toes, feeding difficulties, dyspnea

36

central cyanosis

blue/purple color of skin due to low oxygen saturation

37

comorbid condition

one or more additional disorders/diseases co-occurring

38

Bradydysrhythmia

abnormal slow heart rate (less than 60 beats/minmay need a pacemaker

39

Tachydysrhythmia

abnormal fast heart rate at 200-300 beats/min-common in kids-can lead to congestive heart failure

40

pallor

pale color of the skin caused by illness, stress or anemia

41

anemia

decrease in the amount of red blood cells in the blood

42

Erythrocytosis

Too many red and white blood cells

43

Hemophilia

Absence or reduction of clotting blood proteins found mostly in men
-longer bleeding times-three types
-signs are: excessive bleeding/bruising spontaneous bleeding and nosebleeds

44

Anemia

-caused by iron deficiency

-treated through diet (iron rich foods)

45

Sickle Cell Anemia

abnormally shaped red blood cells-most common in african-americans

-at risk for organ damage due to blocked blood flow
-decreased energy for daily tasks-teach pain management

46

strain - soft tissue

trauma to the muscle or muscle-tendon insertion

47

sprain - soft tissue

rapid swelling, heat, and impaired function to a ligament

48

bruise - soft tissue (contusion)

impact into the subcutaneous tissue w/skin discoloration

49

Complete Fracture

bone is broken all the way through

50

Comminuted fracture

bone is broke into many splintered pieces

51

Compound fracture

broken bone leads to an external wound w/bone protruding

52

Greenstick fracture

bone is partially broken and bent-only in kids

53

Mild IQ between 55-70

Ability to learn academic skills at the third-seventh grade level able to work w/min support

54

Moderate IQ between 40-55

Academic skills at the second grade level and able to perform unskilled as well as some skilled work tasks

55

Severe IQ between 25-40

Able to communicate and perform some basic ADLs and health habits often needing support

56

Profound IQ below 25

Requires caregiver assistance for basic tasks

57

NDT Approach to Hand writting

-good for kids w/poor postural control, poor automatic reactions and limited limb control, kids with tone issues and poor proximal stability.

-Promote proximal joint stability
-Improve hand function

58

Acquisitional Approach to Handwiriting

-Implemented in brief, daily lessons.
-Individual to each child.
-Cognitive phase: develop a Cognitive strategy for the necessary motor movement.
-Associate phase: Proprioceptive feedback and visual cues.

59

Sensorimotor Approach to Handwriting

Various sensory experiences, media, and materials are incorporated.

-Multiple writing tools, writing surfaces, and positions for writing should be offered.

60

Biomechanical approach to Handwriting

-Ergonomic factors that influence writing production.
-Sitting posture, table suraces, paper position, pencil grip.

61

Psychosocial approach to Handwriting

-Improving self-control, coping skills, social behaviors.
-Communicating the importance of good handwriting to the child.
-Opportunities to enhance self-confidence are provided.

62

What is Ayres Sensory Integration?

Proximal senses are emphasized; these senses are thought to dominate a child's early life experiences.
-vestibular-tactile-proprioceptive

63

Neurologically based concerns concerning sensory integration is?

-Optimal brain function is based on sensory input.
-a lack of sensory input at critical points in development may result in learning or behavioral disorders.

64

somatodyspraxia

poor ability to conceptualize, plan and execute motor actions associated w/signs of poor perception

65

visual agnosia

difficulty recognizing objects

66

ideational apraxia

difficulty conceptualizing planned, multistep movements

67

motor apraxia

difficulty completing planned movements

68

spatial relations/positioning

difficulty perceiving distance/object placement

69

Dysarthria

articulation disorder resulting from paralysis of the organs of speech

70

Anomic aphasia

difficulty finding words

71

Wernicke's aphasia/Receptive aphasia

impaired auditory reception, speech may be fluent but is often meaningless/nonsensical

72

Broca's aphasia

broken speech, slow labored speech

73

global aphasia

loss of all language ability

74

A right CVA produces a....

left hemiplegia

75

A left CVA produces a...

right hemiplegia

76

Transient ischemic attacks (TIA)

result from vascular disease in the brain and may be mild, either single or multiple. (ministrokes)

77

Athetosis

fluctuation of tone from low to normal w/little spasticity

78

Nystagmus

reflexive back-and-fourth movement of the eyes when the head moves

79

Muscular Dystrophies

Progressive degeneration and weakness of muscle groups.

80

orientation is?

awareness of person, place, and time

81

anterograde amnesia

is the inability to recall events after a trauma

82

retrograde amnesia

is the inability to recall events prior to a trauma

83

long-term memory

the storage of information for recall at a later time

84

neuroleptic medication can lead to

photosensitivity and protection from the sun

85

precautions for postural hypotension

encourage pt to move slowly when changing positions from sitting to standing

86

Sedentary work

exerting as much as 10lb of force.

-sitting most of the time and walking/standing occasionally

87

Light Work

exerting as much as 20lb of force constantly

walking/standing significant degree

88

Medium work

20-50lbs of force

10-25lbs of force frequently

89

Heavy work

50-100lb of force

90

very heavy work

100lb force occasionally

91

ergonomics

improve health, safety and efficiency of both the worker and the work place

92

work readiness

identify the goals for work and plan for returning to work

93

work simulations

the pt performs tasks similar to the actual job.

treatment not an evaluation

94

grading

upgrading/downgrading an activity step-by-step

95

scaffolding

ot helps pt with parts of the task that are to hard but allows the pt to finish

96

fading

ot slowly lessons or eliminates their support

97

coaching

communicating expectations and support to help the pt perform at a task

98

adaptation/modification

changing the activity demands to match a person's current ability.

-make activity need less cognitive skill
-AE

99

Compensatory technology for cognition

-memory aides
-time management devices
-promoting, cueing, coaching

100

Ramp lift demand

1 foot for every 1 ft height

101

Doorway width demand

32 inches

102

Wheelchair turning space demands

60 by 60 inches

103

cessation

Being brought to an end

104

Allodynia

sensation misinterpreted as pain

105

Hyperalgia

increased response to painful stimuli

106

Hyperpathia

pain that continues after stimuli is removed

107

What is cumulative trauma disorder (CTD)?

trauma to soft tissue caused by repeated force

Symptoms of CTD
-muscle fatigue, pain, chronic inflammation, sensory impairment

108

Work-related risk factors of CTD

repetition, high force, direct pressure, vibration, poor posture

109

work hardening

aggressive approach focuses on the functional aspect of the job. Work stimulation tasks with small components of strength and conditioning blended in.

110

Work Conditioning

strengthening and conditioning tasks to restore function

111

tendon excursion

the distance a tendon travels upon movement of a joint

112

The Duran protocol

an early passive ROM program

113

Kleinert Protocol

active extension of digits w/passive flexion via traction, typically a rubber band

114

The early active motion protocol

begins within days of surgery to prevent adhesion and promote gliding and excursion

115

tendon glides exercises

to promote circulation in the hand to reduce swelling

116

Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES)

promote tendon excursion and activation

117

Micrographia

smaller and smaller handwriting

118

hypophonia

reduced volume of speech

119

apathy

lack of interest, enthusiasm, or concern

120

Task-oriented group

focus on the process of producing something as a group

-picnic lunch
-clinic newsletter

121

Activity groups

focus on function and replicating living in the community with an emphasis on direct experience and the use of an activity to develop skills

122

Group dynamics

properties of a group that emerge from the interventions among group members

123

Group process

how things are said/done and how the group goes about accomplishing its goals

124

therapeutic groups

have measurable and defined structure that includes a time frame.

125

Group leader

to guide the activity of the group

126

If the pts of a group have low cognitive abilities how should the OT leadership style be?

-more directive= provides more directions and structure and is more prescriptive in directing the way group activities unfold

127

If the pts of a group have fair to good insight and motivation how should the OT leadership style be?

-facilitative= allows the pts to take responsibility for some group activities while maintaining control over goals/decision making

128

If the pts of a group are mature (able to work together effectively in resolving conflicts) and has high verbal abilities how should the OT leadership style be?

advisory= works alongside the group participants in a coaching capacity. Enables group members to perform at their highest capacity.

129

Parallel Group

pts complete tasks side by side w/little or no interaction between or among them

130

Cooperative Group

taking care of each others needs is part of the group process

131

Occupations groups

groups centered on occupations (cooking/gardening)

132

Context Groups

groups designed around specific contexts (social networking/support groups)

133

Performance skills/client factors groups

groups designed around cognitive skills/muscle strengthening/social skills

134

Performance patterns groups

groups centered on concepts such as parenting, restoring balance, exploration of new habits.

135

Psychodynamic groups

allow pts to explore the symbolic meaning of activities and group process.

-impulse control
-self-expression

136

Cognitive-behavioral groups

seek to change the pts response or the way they think about using relaxation/stress management tech

teach skills such as role playing

137

Cognitive-behavioral groups principles

shaping - behaviors or reinforced/rewarded

chaining - one step is learned at a time until all steps are learned

reinforcement - positive feedback about a desired behavior

practice - repetition of behaviors to improve

138

Kawa Model Group

"river" - serves as a metaphor for a person's life and the variables of occupation within it