Flashcards in Terms Deck (138):
the ability to discriminate dominant features of objects as to discriminate position, shapes/forms/colors.
match the shape of the stimulus though it might be smaller/bigger/darker than the stimuli
the way the brain interprets sensory information received from the environment. The information is processed by cognitive functions which cause the pt to respond
ability to perceive a whole figure when only fragments are presented.
spatial relationship/spatial orientation
ability to orient one's body in space an to perceive the positions of objects in pictures/figures/patterns that are rotated
ability to distinguish an object from background objects
Slowed motor movements
Decreased coordination of movements
Small rapid steps resulting from a forward-tilted head and trunk posture.
Decrease in the mass of a muscle.
Are muscle tightening exercises performed with no muscle joint movement. Their action is to increase circulation for healing and strengthening muscles with minimal joint irritation.
Formation of a clot in the blood that blocks or partially blocks a blood vessel.
Failure to pay attention to one side of the body
the therapist performs the first several steps of a task and the pt is able to complete the last step of the task
Therapist encourages pt to complete the first step of the task while the therapist completes the rest of the task
A sensation that appears to occur in the missing limb
below the elbow
below the wrist
Passive TD - Amputee
nonfunctional hand worn for cosmetic purposes
Active TB - Amputee
body-powered, externally powered amputation
Contracture is an abnormal shortening or tightening of connective tissue or MUSCLE that impedes proper movement of a JOINT
Prothesis wearing schedule
initial wearing time of 15-30 minutes-examine area for redness
reversible weakening of the bone and is a precursor to osteoporosis
Inability to interpret sensations hence not able to recognize things.
Absence or impairment of ability to communicate through writing, speech or signs.
Loss of Executive Function
Impairment to think abstractly, plan, initiate, sequence, monitor and stop complex behaviors.
The overall mental picture of what one's body looks like not how one feels about their body's appearance
Impression of 'who one is' based on thoughts and feelings about oneself.
Atrial Septal deficits
"wet lungs" to much blood sent to the lungs. Can lead to respiratory infection and poor exercise tolerance.
Ventricular septal deficits
Feeding difficulties, shortness of breath, increased respiratory infections, fatigue and delayed growth can occur
labored breathing; shortness of breath
Tetralogy of Fallot - Decrease pulmonary blood flow
Symptoms - central cyanosis, coagulation defects, clubbing of fingers/toes, feeding difficulties, dyspnea
blue/purple color of skin due to low oxygen saturation
one or more additional disorders/diseases co-occurring
abnormal slow heart rate (less than 60 beats/minmay need a pacemaker
abnormal fast heart rate at 200-300 beats/min-common in kids-can lead to congestive heart failure
pale color of the skin caused by illness, stress or anemia
decrease in the amount of red blood cells in the blood
Too many red and white blood cells
Absence or reduction of clotting blood proteins found mostly in men
-longer bleeding times-three types
-signs are: excessive bleeding/bruising spontaneous bleeding and nosebleeds
-caused by iron deficiency
-treated through diet (iron rich foods)
Sickle Cell Anemia
abnormally shaped red blood cells-most common in african-americans
-at risk for organ damage due to blocked blood flow
-decreased energy for daily tasks-teach pain management
strain - soft tissue
trauma to the muscle or muscle-tendon insertion
sprain - soft tissue
rapid swelling, heat, and impaired function to a ligament
bruise - soft tissue (contusion)
impact into the subcutaneous tissue w/skin discoloration
bone is broken all the way through
bone is broke into many splintered pieces
broken bone leads to an external wound w/bone protruding
bone is partially broken and bent-only in kids
Mild IQ between 55-70
Ability to learn academic skills at the third-seventh grade level able to work w/min support
Moderate IQ between 40-55
Academic skills at the second grade level and able to perform unskilled as well as some skilled work tasks
Severe IQ between 25-40
Able to communicate and perform some basic ADLs and health habits often needing support
Profound IQ below 25
Requires caregiver assistance for basic tasks
NDT Approach to Hand writting
-good for kids w/poor postural control, poor automatic reactions and limited limb control, kids with tone issues and poor proximal stability.
-Promote proximal joint stability
-Improve hand function
Acquisitional Approach to Handwiriting
-Implemented in brief, daily lessons.
-Individual to each child.
-Cognitive phase: develop a Cognitive strategy for the necessary motor movement.
-Associate phase: Proprioceptive feedback and visual cues.
Sensorimotor Approach to Handwriting
Various sensory experiences, media, and materials are incorporated.
-Multiple writing tools, writing surfaces, and positions for writing should be offered.
Biomechanical approach to Handwriting
-Ergonomic factors that influence writing production.
-Sitting posture, table suraces, paper position, pencil grip.
Psychosocial approach to Handwriting
-Improving self-control, coping skills, social behaviors.
-Communicating the importance of good handwriting to the child.
-Opportunities to enhance self-confidence are provided.
What is Ayres Sensory Integration?
Proximal senses are emphasized; these senses are thought to dominate a child's early life experiences.
Neurologically based concerns concerning sensory integration is?
-Optimal brain function is based on sensory input.
-a lack of sensory input at critical points in development may result in learning or behavioral disorders.
poor ability to conceptualize, plan and execute motor actions associated w/signs of poor perception
difficulty recognizing objects
difficulty conceptualizing planned, multistep movements
difficulty completing planned movements
difficulty perceiving distance/object placement
articulation disorder resulting from paralysis of the organs of speech
difficulty finding words
Wernicke's aphasia/Receptive aphasia
impaired auditory reception, speech may be fluent but is often meaningless/nonsensical
broken speech, slow labored speech
loss of all language ability
A right CVA produces a....
A left CVA produces a...
Transient ischemic attacks (TIA)
result from vascular disease in the brain and may be mild, either single or multiple. (ministrokes)
fluctuation of tone from low to normal w/little spasticity
reflexive back-and-fourth movement of the eyes when the head moves
Progressive degeneration and weakness of muscle groups.
awareness of person, place, and time
is the inability to recall events after a trauma
is the inability to recall events prior to a trauma
the storage of information for recall at a later time
neuroleptic medication can lead to
photosensitivity and protection from the sun
precautions for postural hypotension
encourage pt to move slowly when changing positions from sitting to standing
exerting as much as 10lb of force.
-sitting most of the time and walking/standing occasionally
exerting as much as 20lb of force constantly
walking/standing significant degree
20-50lbs of force
10-25lbs of force frequently
50-100lb of force
very heavy work
100lb force occasionally
improve health, safety and efficiency of both the worker and the work place
identify the goals for work and plan for returning to work
the pt performs tasks similar to the actual job.
treatment not an evaluation
upgrading/downgrading an activity step-by-step
ot helps pt with parts of the task that are to hard but allows the pt to finish
ot slowly lessons or eliminates their support
communicating expectations and support to help the pt perform at a task
changing the activity demands to match a person's current ability.
-make activity need less cognitive skill
Compensatory technology for cognition
-time management devices
-promoting, cueing, coaching
Ramp lift demand
1 foot for every 1 ft height
Doorway width demand
Wheelchair turning space demands
60 by 60 inches
Being brought to an end
sensation misinterpreted as pain
increased response to painful stimuli
pain that continues after stimuli is removed
What is cumulative trauma disorder (CTD)?
trauma to soft tissue caused by repeated force
Symptoms of CTD
-muscle fatigue, pain, chronic inflammation, sensory impairment
Work-related risk factors of CTD
repetition, high force, direct pressure, vibration, poor posture
aggressive approach focuses on the functional aspect of the job. Work stimulation tasks with small components of strength and conditioning blended in.
strengthening and conditioning tasks to restore function
the distance a tendon travels upon movement of a joint
The Duran protocol
an early passive ROM program
active extension of digits w/passive flexion via traction, typically a rubber band
The early active motion protocol
begins within days of surgery to prevent adhesion and promote gliding and excursion
tendon glides exercises
to promote circulation in the hand to reduce swelling
Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES)
promote tendon excursion and activation
smaller and smaller handwriting
reduced volume of speech
lack of interest, enthusiasm, or concern
focus on the process of producing something as a group
focus on function and replicating living in the community with an emphasis on direct experience and the use of an activity to develop skills
properties of a group that emerge from the interventions among group members
how things are said/done and how the group goes about accomplishing its goals
have measurable and defined structure that includes a time frame.
to guide the activity of the group
If the pts of a group have low cognitive abilities how should the OT leadership style be?
-more directive= provides more directions and structure and is more prescriptive in directing the way group activities unfold
If the pts of a group have fair to good insight and motivation how should the OT leadership style be?
-facilitative= allows the pts to take responsibility for some group activities while maintaining control over goals/decision making
If the pts of a group are mature (able to work together effectively in resolving conflicts) and has high verbal abilities how should the OT leadership style be?
advisory= works alongside the group participants in a coaching capacity. Enables group members to perform at their highest capacity.
pts complete tasks side by side w/little or no interaction between or among them
taking care of each others needs is part of the group process
groups centered on occupations (cooking/gardening)
groups designed around specific contexts (social networking/support groups)
Performance skills/client factors groups
groups designed around cognitive skills/muscle strengthening/social skills
Performance patterns groups
groups centered on concepts such as parenting, restoring balance, exploration of new habits.
allow pts to explore the symbolic meaning of activities and group process.
seek to change the pts response or the way they think about using relaxation/stress management tech
teach skills such as role playing
Cognitive-behavioral groups principles
shaping - behaviors or reinforced/rewarded
chaining - one step is learned at a time until all steps are learned
reinforcement - positive feedback about a desired behavior
practice - repetition of behaviors to improve