Mental Disorders Do's/Don't Do's Flashcards Preview

7/13/15 NBCOT Exam > Mental Disorders Do's/Don't Do's > Flashcards

Flashcards in Mental Disorders Do's/Don't Do's Deck (68):

Catatonic Behaviors

Behavior characterized by muscular tightness or rigidity and lack of response to the environment.


Negative Symptoms

A lack of behaviors or feelings that usually are present, such as:
-Losing interest in everyday activities, like bathing, grooming, or getting dressed.
-Feeling out of touch with other people, family, or friends. -Having little emotion or inappropriate feelings in certain situations.


Paranoid Type Definition

Involves false beliefs of being persecuted or plotted against.


Undifferentiated Type Definition

Symptoms fluctuate around.



A disoriented reaction with restlessness and confusion. It may be associated with fear/hallucinations.


Substance abuse individuals often have issues with

time management


Reducing distractions and keeping lighting low may be useful environmental adaptations for individuals with

mania or hyperactivity


Providing a stimulating environment and real life activities is recommended for individuals experiencing



OT practitioners should leave doors open and avoid being alone with individuals who are

hostile or violent


Becoming familiar with an environment in advance and knowing what to expect can help reduce



Time use assessments examine how individuals spend their time in

work, leisure and self-care activities


The most appropriate type of activities to begin treatment for a person with severe depression are

repetitive, structured and simple enough to ensure success such as housework, folding laundry, simple cooking, sanding, clerical tasks and sewing.


The psychoeducational model utilizes a

teacher-student format as opposed to learning by doing approach and often includes a homework component.


Activities that provide increased vestibular input (such as rocking) can help what?

reorganize the way the central nervous system organizes and interprets sensory input, which can help decrease agitation


A cooking group would support the experience of preparing and consuming normal size portions of food for individuals

with eating disorders.


Behavioral therapy approaches to OCD include

helping the client overcome the tendency toward compulsive behavior by identifying the triggers to a compulsive episode, planning a strategy for overriding the compulsion and continuing to do the activity or task.


A Role Checklist gathers information on the client's what?

former and current roles and the value the client places on these roles, consistent with the Model of Human Occupation.


A projective test such as the House-Tree-Person is not designed to evaluate roles or role behavior but rather to reveal what?

a client's personality


The Canadian Occupational Performance Measure helps clients identify what?

their perceptions of their own occupational performance


conversion disorder

a condition in which you show psychological stress in physical ways. The condition was so named to describe a health problem that starts as a mental or emotional crisis a scary or stressful incident of some kind and converts to a physical problem.


factitious disorder

are conditions in which a person deliberately and consciously acts as if he or she has a physical or mental illness when he or she is not really sick.


histrionic personality disorder

pattern of attention seeking behavior and extreme emotionality. Someone with histrionic personality disorder wants to be the center of attention in any group of people, and feel uncomfortable when they are not.


___________ has been shown to improve a sense of well-being in the caregiver and offers a suitable context for caregiving.

Embracing everyday occupations


Most substance abuse programs include or or more self-help groups that use a

classic 12-step process. Most substance abusers seek help through self-help groups. Occupational therapy practitioners working with this population are likely to become involved in facilitating or supporting these groups.



intended for education of professionals providing services for substance abuse clients


occupational deprivation

a state of prolonged preclusion from engagement in occupations of necessity or meaning due to factors outside the control of an individual (external), such as through geographic isolation, incarceration, or disability


Simple and concrete activities are most appropriate for clients hospitalized with

Depression. For the trivet activity, the solid color removes the need to make decisions about color and pattern, the trivet provides clear physical boundaries and gluing the tile onto the backing is simple and concrete. Participation in a parallel group minimizes the need for social interaction but allow physical proximity to others.


Free-form clay projects of their choice would be too overwhelming for most patients hospitalized with

depression, who have difficulty making decisions and initiating activity.


A cooperative group is not a good choice for most people hospitalized for

depression because it requires the individuals to interact and problem solve with each other, which can be difficult.


Painting a watercolor would not provide enough structure and might overwhelm patients with

severe depression


Many people response well to relaxation with guided imagery, but guided imagery alone is contraindicated for people with

hallucination potential such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder with psychosis or schizoaffective disorder.


Clients in the acute phases of multiple personality disorder require opportunities for

safe and supportive exploration of new personalities. Clients with multiple personality disorder will tend to show more severe symptoms when provided with more opportunities to self-express, such as in nondirective verbal groups.



a type of anxiety disorder in which you fear and often avoid places or situations that might cause you to panic and make you feel trapped, helpless or embarrassed


Panic Disorder

is a serious condition that strikes without reason or warning. Symptoms of panic disorder include sudden attacks of fear and nervousness, as well as physical symptoms such as sweating and a racing heart.



where people feel the need to check things repeatedly, have certain thoughts repeatedly, and feel they need to perform certain routines repeatedly. People are unable to control either the thoughts or the activities


Social Phobia

have great distress in a wide range of social situations


substance-induced anxiety disorder

A substance-induced anxiety disorder that begins during substance use can last as long as the drug is used. A substance-induced anxiety disorder that begins during withdrawal may first manifest up to four weeks after an individual stops using the substance.


Borderline personality disorder (BPD)

The essential feature include a pattern of impulsivity and instability of behaviors, interpersonal relationships, and self-image. The pattern is present by early adulthood and occurs across a variety of situations and contextsOther symptoms usually include intense fears of abandonment, intense anger, and irritability, the reason for which others have difficulty understanding. People with BPD often engage in idealization and devaluation of others, alternating between high positive regard and great disappointment. Self-harm, suicidal behavior, and substance abuse are common.


Avoidant personality disorder (AvPD)

when they display a pervasive pattern of social inhibition, feelings of inadequacy, extreme sensitivity to negative evaluation, and avoidance of social interaction. Individuals afflicted with the disorder tend to describe themselves as ill at ease, anxious, lonely, and generally feel unwanted and isolated from others.often consider themselves to be socially inept or personally unappealing and avoid social interaction for fear of being ridiculed, humiliated, rejected, or disliked


Dependent personality disorder (DPD)

is characterized by a pervasive psychological dependence on other people. This personality disorder is a long-term (chronic) condition in which people depend on others to meet their emotional and physical needs, with only a minority achieving normal levels of independence.


Dementia - OT Interventions

-provide pt w/a sense of belonging
-promote positive behaviors-appropriate verbal/nonverbal communication
-repetitive, familiar and routine
-relaxation tech (rocking chairs/soothing music)
-sensorimotor therapy
-structured activities (leisure/interests)


Schizophrenia - Do's

-Social skills training
-Cognitive skill training (attention, memory, planning, decision making/judgement)
-Social interaction
-Expression/verbalize feelings
-Coping skills
-Gross motor activity

-Body tracing activity


Schizophrenia - Don'ts

-Formless clay activity
-guided imagery


Anorexia - Do's

Body tracing activity


Psychotic Patients - Don'ts

-Marbleized paint activity
-Guided imagery


Anxiety - Do's

-Relaxing activities
-Have pt choose their activity
-Cognitive skills training (decisions, problem solving)
-Provide a calm, familiar/safe place
-Give tour of gym and schedule therapy to make pt feel secure and in control
-After they are talking, refocus to neutral/constructive activity

-Journal writing
-Multi-sensory rooms
-Graded expressive media
-Allow breaks
-Esteem building
-expression of feelings
-Coping skills
-Reflective time


Anxiety - Don'ts

-Keep away from over stimulated areas (too much noise or people)


Mania - Do's

-Social/vocational skills training
-Cognitive skills training (judgement, planning)
-be firm, consistent but warm and supportive
-Enforce rules/limits
-Choose short-term, structured, gratifying, repetitive, successful activities
-limit choices, decisions, unstructured activities
-Build attention span, carry over skills
-limit distractions
-activities should have 3 or less steps

-physical activity
-Coping skills
-Skill/routine building
-LIfestyle analysis
-Esteem building
-Expression of feelings


Mania - Don'ts

-praise or criticize


Depression - Do's

-Match clients tempo
-simple, structured, short-term, non-resistive, successful activities
-increase social opportunities
-repetitive activities allow the person to succeed.

-Cognitive skills training (decisions, problem solving)
-Esteem building
-Expression of feelings
-Disclosure/sharing activities
-coping skills


Depression - Don'ts

-Avoid rescuing
-actively listen but never agree the situation is hopeless
-unstructured activities - leave people w/little energy to make necessary decisions
-avoid choices - give them two at first
-Limit stimulation w/severe depression
-avoid praise


Suicidal Ideation - Don'ts

-Give sharps
-minimize their experience by telling them to "smile"


Hallucination Symptom Management - Don'ts

-Guided imagery


Hallucination Symptom Management - Do's

-Educate: Remind the client that what they see/hear is part of their disease
-Simple, structured, avoid frustration
-Stimulate the senses
-Avoid isolation
-Quiet, calm, non-distracting environment

-Reassure w/soothing manner
-Redirect to task
-Coping w/hallucinations


Delusions - Do's

-Change subject/redirect to activity
-Be matter-of-fact, sincere, non-intrusive
-Reality-oriented, stimulating environment
-Encourage selection of activity


Delusions - Don'ts

-Don't argue/challenge the delusion it will only reinforce it
-Don't show much interest in their delusional thinking
-Too many questions will make them suspicious of you
-Don't patronize


Paranoia - Do's

-Give clear rules, consistent, precise instructions
-Stay in charge
-Parallel/cooperative group setting
-Predictable/consistent setting


Paranoia - Don'ts

-Competitive/surprising activities
-Don't patronize
-Resist arguing
-Avoid approaching them from behind/whispering in their presence
-Discourage isolation


Regression - Do's

-Temporarily adjust approach to level of development the client is showing
-Meet their needs if reasonable (permissive, nurturing and parental)


Akathisia (state of agitation, distress, restlessness) - Do's

Allow the person to move around w/o causing distruption to the group
-Gross motor activities


Akathisia (state of agitation, distress, restlessness) - Don'ts

finer motor activities


Lack of initiation/participation - Do's

-activities of interests
-positive feedback and rewards
-food is motivating


Stage 1 - Early/mild impairment - Alzheimers

-decreased attention span

-memory problems

-word finding problems

-difficulty w/decisions


Stage 2 - Mild/Moderate Impairment - Alzheimers

-chromic memory loss

-visual-spacial-perceptual problems

-Wander, pace, rummage


Stage 3 - Late/Severe Impairment - Alzheimers

-ADL dependent

-hand over hand tech

-decreased appetite/interest in food

-difficulty w/chewing swallowing


-Increased falls


Stage 4 - Terminal stage - Alzheimers

-confined to bed or w/c

-total dependence

-limited visual tracking

-few words/mute


Alzheimers keep it?

short and simple


Alzeheimers stressors to avoid



over stimulation