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Women's Health > Terms and Definitions > Flashcards

Flashcards in Terms and Definitions Deck (96):
1

Nullipara

A woman who has never been pregnant beyond 20 weeks

2

Gravid

The number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome

3

Para/parity

The number of babies born after 20 weeks gestation

4

G6, P4

Gravida 6, Para 4 means pregnant 6 times (includes current) and has previously delivered 4 babies at more than 20 weeks gestation

5

Grand mulitpara

Woman who has delivered 5 or more babies at more than 20 weeks gestation

6

abortion / miscarriage

pregnancy loss before 20 weeks gestation

7

labour

regular painful contractions with cervical change after 20 weeks

8

LUSCS

operative delivery of the baby through an incision in the lower uterine segment

9

classical c section

operative delivery of a baby through a vertical incision in the upper segment of the uterus

10

hysterotomy

operative delivery of the baby through a uterine incision at less than 20 weeks gestation

11

preterm labour

labour at less than 37 weeks

12

PROM

rupture of membranes before onset of labour

13

PPROM

rupture of the membranes before labour at less than 37 weeks gestation

14

ARM / AROM

artifical rupture of the membranes

15

SROM

spontaneous rupture of the membranes

16

Braxton Hicks contractions

painless uteirne contractions in the antenatal period

17

Naegles rule

To estimate probable date of confinement.
Add 9m7d to first day of last menstrual period. Correct if not 28d cycles

18

First stage of labour

From start of labour until full dilation of the cervix

19

Second stage of labour

From full dilation of cervix to delivery of the baby

20

Third stage of labour

From birth of baby until delivery of placenta and membranes

21

Spurious or false labour

uterine contractions which may be regular and painful but are not associated with cervical effacement and dilation

22

Oxytocic

Medication that stimulates contractions of the uterine muscle

23

Tocolytic

Medication to stop uterine contractions

24

Induction of labour

Process causing labour to commence

25

Augmentation of labour

process of stimulating a labour that has already started

26

placenta praevia

placenta that approaches or covers the internal cervical os in late second or third trimester

27

vasa praevia

fetal vessels lying in the membranes in front of the presenting part

28

antepartum haemorrhage

bleeding >5ml from the vagina after 20 weeks gestation

29

abruption

separation of the placenta from the uterus in the antenatal or intrapartum period

30

post partum haemorrhage

vaginal bleeding of more than 500mL in the first 24h after delivery

31

secondary post partum haemorrhage

vaginal bleeding of more than 500mL more than 24h after delivery

32

placenta accreta

placenta that invades the myometrium

33

uterine atony

abnormal relaxation of the uterus after delivery, usually causing bleeding

34

isoimmunisation

blood group antibodies cross the placenta resulting in haemolysis of foetal red blood cells. Abs include D, c, K (Kell), Kidd, Duffy etc

35

CTG

cardiotocograph

36

neonatal death

a liveborn infant who dies within 28 days of birth of at least 20 weeks gestation or weighing >400g if gestation is unknown

37

stillbirth

an infant born after 20 weeks gestation (or >400g if gestation unknown) who did not show any signs of life after birth

38

perinatal mortality rate

the number of stillbirths plus neonatal deaths per 1000 births

39

maternal death

the death of a woman while pregnant (irrespective of the gestation) or within 42 days of the conclusion of the pregnancy irrespective of the cause of death or gestation at delivery

40

maternal mortality rate

number of maternal deaths per 100 000 live births

41

infant death

death of an infant between 29 days and 1 year of life

42

station

the level of descent of the presenting part relative to the pelvic brim or symphysis on abdominal palpation, or to the ischial spines on vaginal examination

43

lie

the relationship between the long axis of the foetus and the long axis of the uterus e.g. longitudinal, oblique, transverse

44

Position

The relationship of a defined area on the presenting part (the ‘denominator’) to the
mother’s pelvis. In a cephalic presentation, the denominator is the occiput, thus the fetal position is described as occipito-anterior (OA), occipito-posterior (OP), left or right
occipito-transverse (L/ROT). In a breech presentation, the denominator is the sacrum (SA, SP, ST).

45

Presentation

the part of the foetus which is presenting e.g. vertex, breech

46

asynclitisim

side to side tilt of the foetal head

47

caput

oedema from obstructed venous return in the foetal scalp caused by pressure of the head against the cervix

48

cervical incompetence

painless cervical dilation in the second trimester causing preterm labour

49

cord prolapse

cord is alongside or below the presenting part in the presence of rupture membranes

50

episiotomy

surgical incision of the perineum during the second stage of labour

51

third degree tear

perineal trauma which involves the vaginal mucosa, perineal muscles and external anal sphincter

52

second degree tear

perineal trauma which involves the vaginal mucosa and perineal muscles

53

lochia

vaginal discharge during the puerperium

54

oligohydramnios

reduced amniotic fluid

55

polyhydramnios

excess amniotic fluid

56

pre eclampsia

HTN and proteinuria in pregnancy

57

eclampsia

a seizure in the clinical setting of pre eclampsia

58

amniocentesis

sampling of amniotic fluid using a needle through the abdominal wall of the woman

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CVS

sampling of the placenta using a needle under US guidance

60

external cephalic version

turning a breech baby to cephalic presentation through the maternal abdominal wall

61

retained placenta

placenta still in utero 1 hour after delivery of the baby

62

precipitate labour

labour less than 4h duration

63

shoulder dystocia

difficulty delivery the shoulders after delivery of the foetal head

64

puerperium

6 weeks following delivery

65

quickening

maternal perception of foetal movements

66

restitution

rotation of the foetal head after delivery to align with the back and shoulders

67

show

discharge of blood and mucous from the vagina in early labour or days preceding labour

68

phototherapy

use of standard fluorescent white or blue light therapy to photoisomerise bilirubin to allow for its excretion

69

exchange transfusion

procedure to treat severe newborn pathological jaundice in which blood is removed and replaced with donor blood. Removes bilirubin and also Abs that have been causing haemolysis and jaundice

70

Low birthweight baby

71

VLB

72

Neonatal respiratory distress

Tachypnoea, increased effort of breaking, noisy breathing and central cyanosis

73

Caesarean hysterectomy

Laparotomy at which the contents of the gravid uterus are delivered, then the uterus is excised e.g. due to placenta accreta

74

Perimortem CS

C section performed on a moribund or dead woman with a view to preserving her life

75

AUB

abnormal uterine bleeding. overarching term for disturbed menstrual bleeding which includes bleeding that is abnormally heavy or abnormal in timing

76

primary amenorrhoea

absence of periods ever

77

secondary amenorrhoea

absence of periods for a six month period

78

intermenstrual bleeding

bleeding episodes between normally times menstrual periods that are either random or follow a cyclical pattern

79

irregular menstrual bleeding

unpredictable onset of menses with cycle variations of >20days over a period of 1 year

80

prolonged menstrual bleedign

menstrual bleeding lasting >8d on a regular basis

81

acute AUB

an episode of heavy bleeding that in the clinician's opinion, is sufficiently heaving to require immediate treatment to prevent further blood loss

82

chronic AUB

bleeding from the uterine corpus that is abnormal in volume, duration and or frequency and has been present for most of the past 6 months

83

heavy menstrual bleeding (replaces menorrhagia)

excessiv emenstrual loss that interferes with a woman's physical, emotional, social and material quality of life, occurring alone or with other symptoms. Includes bleeding deemed excessive by the patient regardless of its characteristics

84

dysmenorrhoea

pelvic pain during menstruation

85

dyspareunia

pain with sexual intercourse

86

cervical excitation

pain felt by the woman when her cervix is moved during vaginal examination, typically from free blood in the peritoneal cavity

87

cervical ectropion

the endocervical columnar epithelium protrudes through the external os of the cervix and onto the vaginal portion of the cervix

88

infertility

failure of a couple to conceive after 1 year

89

endometriosis

endometrial tissue outside the uterus, most commonly on pelvic peritoneal surfaces

90

adenomyosis

occurrence of endometrial tissue within the myometrium

91

PID

infection of uterus, fallopian tubes or pelvis

92

menopause

final menstrual period

93

premature menopause

menopause occurring before 40y of age

94

climacteric / perimenopuase

period when ovarian function declines and menstrual symptoms appear

95

post menopause

time after menopause

96

lactational amenorrhoea method

effective contraception provided when a woman is fully breast feeding a baby less than 6 months of age and has no return of menses