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Flashcards in Test 1 Deck (84):
1

What is health

A state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity

2

What are the dimensions of wellness

Physical
Occupational
Social
Intellectual
Spiritual
Emotional

3

What is an infectious disease

something you can catch from someone else

4

what is a chronic disease

diseases that effect us for a long period of time and slowly develop

influenced by lifestyle and genetics

5

What are the pillars of public health

epidemiology and disease control
environmental health
health promotion and health education

6

What is physical activity

any bodily movement

7

What is exercise

activity that enhances an aspect of fitness, specific and intentional actions

8

what is fitness

attainment of specific criteria to function efficiently and effectively

9

What are the health related aspects of fitness

cardiovascular endurance
muscular endurance
muscular strength
flexibility
body composition

10

What are the skill related aspects of fitness

agility
balance
coordination
power
speed
reaction time

11

What are the metabolic fitness components

blood sugar levels
blood lipid levels
blood hormone levels

12

What is bone integrity

bone density and strength

13

what is kinesiology

study of physiological process and anatomy of the body during movement

14

What are case studies

describes what happens to one or a few individuals

ex: graded exercise science test

15

What is a cross sectional study

when you compare different groups of people at a given point in time

ex: fit vs. unfit

16

what is a longitudinal study

studies group of people over a long period of time and are able to study long term behaviors and outcomes

17

what is an experimental study

it examines a group before and after training and identifies pre/post changes over time

18

What are the types of muscle movement

sliding filament theory
muscle contraction
aerobic
anaerobic (no oxygen for ATP)

19

Muscle fibers stained light, anaerobic and suited to strength and speed

Fast twitch muscle fiber

20

muscle fibers stained dark, aerobic and suited to endurance activity

slow twitch muscle fiber

21

What does the body use for energy production

food (fats, protein, carbohydrates)
ATP

22

Anaerobic Immediate source for energy

creatine phosphate system
(~10 seconds)

23

Anaerobic short-term source for energy

Glycolysis- glucose stored in cell and within muscle
ATP and pyruvate
(~20-120 seconds)

24

Aerobic long term source for energy

ocydative phosphorylation
uses fat as energy source
(3+ minutes)

25

Graded exercise test (GXT)

heart rate
blood pressure
rating od perceived exertion
gas exchange
blood lactate

26

What does GXT determine

normal response to exercise
maximal aerobic capacity
VO2 max

27

VO2 max formula

= mL/ kg (body weight)/ minutes

28

Gross energy expenditure

PA plus resting EE

29

Net energy expenditure

PA only

30

Resting energy expenditure

1 MET

31

Metabolic Equivalent

MET

32

1 MET equivalents

1 MET= 3.5 mL O2/ kg/ min
1 MET= 1 kcal/ kg/ hour

33

What is heart rate

frequency of heart beats/minute

34

what is blood pressure

pressure that your blood exerts on the blood vessels

35

Systolic pressure

pressure when the heart if contracting "pumping"

Left ventricle

36

Diastolic pressure

Pressure when the heart is relaxing "filling"

37

Amount of blood pumped with each beat

stroke volume

38

amount of blood pumped from heart per minute of exercise

cardiac output (L/min)

heart rate x stroke volume

39

amount of oxygen removed from the blood for muscle use

O2 extraction

40

Difference between artery oxygen values and venous oxygen values in the muscle

AvO2

41

VO2

volume of oxygen utilized during exercise

measured in MET
directly related to the intensity of exercise

42

maximal amount of oxygen used at maximal exercise

VO2 max

43

What are the principles of training

specificity
overload
progression
reversibility

44

What is specificity

specific adaption imposed demands

45

What is overload

training effects that occur when the body is challenged at a level beyond which it is normally accustomed

FITT

46

what is progression

overload increased over time

47

Expected change in endurance training and VO2 max

15% increase in VO2 max

48

accounts for 40-66% VO2max

genetic predisposition

49

Why does VO2 max increase

heart adaptions to deliver more oxygen
muscles can use more oxygen

50

What is an indication of glycolysis

Blood lactate

51

Lactate Threshold

point at which lactate begins to accumulate in the blood, which indicates a switch to anaerobic metabolism as a primary source of ATP

52

WHy does lactate threshold shift after training

increased blood flow (removes lactate)
increased reliance on aerobic metabolism
important marker for training

53

What does aerobic training lead to

structural and biochemical changes in muscle
metabolic changes
bone density
cardiovascular strength
thermoregulatry adaptions

54

Increased ability to recruit muscle fibers to activate motor units

physiological adaptions to strength training

55

When does muscle enlargement occur?

10+ weeks

56

What is epidemiology

study of distribution and determinates of disease and disability in populations

57

Physical Activity Epidemiology

Who is physically active
How much activity do they do
Where they are active
When are they active
Why are they active
What do they do
How does this affect disease

58

Looked at Drivers and Conductors to see who was more active and who stayed more healthy

Morris 1953 study

59

PA Measurement

Total Energy Expenditure (TEE)
Physical Activity (PAEE)
Basal Metabolic Rate (BMEE)

60

What is TEE

thermic effect of food

61

What is PAEE

energy expended through PA

62

What is BMEE

energy necessary for breathing and circulation at rest

63

Monitors gas exchange and measures energy usage

indirect calorimetry

64

uses isotopes and monitors their elimination from the body

doubly labeled water

65

Nonlab methods to measure PA

pedometer
direct observation
self-report instruments

66

Total number of cases of a disease or condition in a given population at a specific time, or how many people meet PA guidelines

Prevalence

67

Long term movement or change in PA frequency

Trend

68

How many adults participate in 150+ min of moderate PA per week

51.7%

69

How many adults participate in aerobic and muscle strength training

21%

70

Who are lower risk groups (>56%)

athletes
greek students
intramurals
black, nonhispanic

71

Who are higher risk groups (<40)

females
asian
international
LGBQ

72

Who is the most active age group among adults

18-24 year olds

73

increase in proportion of "light" MET jobs
decrease in moderate MET jobs
increase in sedentary jobs

Occupational Trends in PA

74

What are some changes in transportation and auto dependence

vehicles per liscenced driver has increased
daily vehicle miles per capita has increased

75

PA Trends in the last 50 years

leisure time PA increase
work related PA decrease
transportation decrease
activity in home decrease
sedentary activity increase

76

What is a dose response?

the amount of physical activity or exercise that is necessary to achieve a specific outcome, based on FITT guidelines

77

First PA Recommendations in 1961

were made to prevent heart disease

78

Human Services PA Guidelines

150 min of moderate aerobic work or 75 min of vigorous work in 10 minute bouts AND muscle strength training 2 days per week with sets between 8-12 reps

79

Moderate intensity in METs

3-5.9 MET

80

Vigorous intensity in MET

6+

81

Recommendations for children and adolescent PA

60+ min of daily activity
vigorous activity 2 days/ week
strength
bone strengthening

82

Recommendations for older adult PA

same guidelines as for adults
improve balance
progress slowly

83

Recommendations for pregnant women PA

Continue with regular guidelines

84

Recommendations for people with disabilities PA

same guidelines as adults
be as active as conditions allow